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Felicia Hemans and Burial at Sea in the Nineteenth-Century Imaginary
Jessica Roberson

This article identifies sea-burial as a topos of the early nineteenth-century imaginary that draws on both Gothic tropes and Romantic reformulations of Gothic aesthetics in order to signal a sea changed poetics of shifting dislocation, decay, and denial in the work of Felicia Hemans. The loss of a corpse at sea makes visible the extent to which any act of posthumous identification relies upon a complex network actively maintained by the living. This article will also develop our understanding of the ways in which Gothic tropes of burial might extend into specifically maritime literary cultures of the early nineteenth century. This strand of a nautical Gothic reflects not only nineteenth-century anxieties about nautical death but the corporeality of both individual and cultural memory. Such representations of sea-burial negotiate a nautical Gothic aesthetic that might propel new understanding of the relationship between poetry and the material dimensions of affective memorialization.

Gothic Studies
Italian Narratives and the Late Romantic Metrical Tale
Diego Saglia

This essay addresses Gothic constructions of Italy by reconsidering Romantic-period literary works that capitalised on stereotypes of the country as a land ridden with violence, vice and dangers. If Gothic discourse ‘pre-scribed’ Italy as a country of terrifying events, Gothic writings also reworked an Italy that was already ‘pre-scribed’ according to hostile notions within a stratified geo-cultural archive dating back at least to the Renaissance. This combination of disparaging images was not created exclusively on the basis of British anti-Catholic feelings and other cultural hostility. Often it originated from Italian documentary sources and, particularly Italian literature, itself the object of increasing scrutiny in the Romantic period. This essay examines the Gothic construction and uses of Italy in verse tales published in the later Romantic period and inspired by Dante‘s Divina Commedia and Boccaccio‘s Decameron, among them Edward Wilmot‘s Ugolino; or, the Tower of Famine, Felicia Hemans‘s ‘The Maremma’, William Herbert‘s Pia della Pietra, John Keats‘s Isabella and Barry Cornwall‘s A Sicilian Story. These narrative poems employ Italy as an archive of Gothic plots, atmospheres and situations, making plain its double status: that of a fictitious, approximative set of geo-cultural notions, as well as that of a repertoire of fictional materials.

Gothic Studies
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Contextualizing Elizabeth Siddal
Anne Woolley

, deliberately choosing to be enigmatic and withdrawn, sickly and only half-alive. 3 They, and the critical reception they garner, are now a matter of public record and cannot help but inform attitudes towards their creator, because published documents are rhetorical statements with multiple meanings imposed on them by the reader. The relationship between poet and reader can be problematic if the image presented is one the reader takes literally. Any deviation could be then regarded as hypocrisy, as in the case of L. E. L. and Hemans who needed to publish to support families

in The poems of Elizabeth Siddal in context
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Siddal, Christina Rossetti and the literary context
Anne Woolley

contrast sharply with the attitudes of men trapped in this traditional repressive role. 8 Some female poets wanted a happy marriage as well as the opportunity to explore their gift, others were reliant on male financial support yet sought independent fame as a poetess. Romantic poets Felicia Hemans and Letitia Landon (L. E. L.) needed to work so had to compromise their art; L. E. L. wrote fiction as did the fictitious Aurora Leigh, later poets Augusta Webster and Matilda Blind produced journalism and many others put their work into annuals and gift books, facing up to a

in The poems of Elizabeth Siddal in context
Anne Woolley

-century women poets when permission to write was not always granted. Penning Sappho’s last words they gave themselves that permission even if they are then killing her to assure their own literary survival. 14 L. E. L., Hemans, Barrett Browning, Christina Rossetti and Caroline Norton were all drawn to Sappho’s fragments in gestures of absorption and imitation, beginning what would be a long tradition of appropriating her poetry and her persona to explore the issues and anxieties behind female creativity and erotic experience. 15 ‘Sappho’ (1822) by L. E. L. uses a mixture

in The poems of Elizabeth Siddal in context
The academy and the canon
Damian Walford Davies

-confidence about what might constitute the factual in a general sense – the way things are or were; and it is presumably because of the general inferences that might be drawn from them that such constructions claim value. To take a pertinent and well-known example: was the ‘Romantic Period’ either ‘Romantic’ or a period? For many years, readers and university students were encouraged to forget the ascendancy, as poets, of Thomas Campbell, Samuel Rogers, Thomas Moore and Felicia Hemans and to relegate the poetry of Burns and Clare and the novels of Walter Scott to a kind of

in Counterfactual Romanticism
Anne Woolley

and Amy Levy wrote an essay on her. 84 Membership of the Portfolio Society that circulated texts between women readers facilitated discourse about female experience and it would be interesting to know if Siddal read Hemans and Landon as it’s understood others did. As her poems are entirely non-specific and refer only to generic circumstances they cannot be related to external events or stand as commentary on, for example, specific feminist issues. By comparison, the reading habits of Elizabeth Barrett Browning are widely known. She read from hundreds of women

in The poems of Elizabeth Siddal in context
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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

John M. MacKenzie

H. N. Hemans refused promotion and always insisted on being sent to the remote Gokwe District because it was one of the few areas where the hunting remained good. 118 It was a special treat for one of his assistants to be sent on a tax-gathering safari because of the hunting which could be enjoyed en route . By that time, indeed, hunting was largely restricted to government officials, landowners, and

in The Empire of Nature
Cattle and urban development, 1850–65
Juliana Adelman

market in the North Wall, its supporters believed, would create a barrier between the cattle and Dubliners. The plans, produced by engineer George Willoughby Hemans in 1861, linked all railway lines approaching Dublin at a single terminus on the North Wall to facilitate cattle rather than human passengers. Hemans proposed a co-located abattoir to develop the trade in dead meat, which he argued would reduce the impact of cattle slaughtering in the city and benefit local trade in the use of offal. 104 The market and abattoir would be contained and separated from the

in Civilised by beasts