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Playing Scotsmen in mainland Europe

Twenty-first-century Scottish play-acting draws depth and energy from a European and Western tradition of dreaming Scottish dreams, and this tradition dates back to at least the late eighteenth century, to the beginnings of European Romanticism. This book explores how contemporary celebrations of Scotland build upon earlier Scottish fantasies. The Scottish dreamscape is one of several pre-modern counter-worlds which have been approached through imitation in the past. The book examines the 'Scotland' that is on the play-actors' minds. The Scottish dreamscape was formed in an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century process now best known as Highlandism. It was then that Scotland became associated with the aesthetics and supposed characteristics of its Highland periphery. The book also explores the Scottish dreamscape's spread via the channels of the British Empire and American popular culture. It identifies five key carriers which helped to disseminate the Scottish aesthetic across the world, namely epic poetry, the Highland regiments, music hall entertainment, Hollywood films, and romance novels. The book further focuses on fieldwork conducted in 2009 and 2010. It sheds some light on the different forms of Scottish play-acting, on musicians, athletes, commemorators, and historical re-enactors. The pipers and athletes do not imitate the past; they perform in what they hope are old but living Scottish traditions. Commemorators and historical re-enactors have a different aim. They seek to recreate the past in the present. Finally, the book identifies some of the main reasons for the Scottish dreamscape's special resonance in northern and western Europe.

innovation which quickly became established as a stage tradition. The reputation of the Highland regiments, especially during the Napoleonic Wars, lent a new prestige and glamour to the wearing of tartan. These battalions had been specifically exempted from the ban on Highland dress in the Disarming Act of 1746 and thereafter the kilt was forever associated with the heroic deeds of the Scottish soldier. During the phase of intense patriotism during the wars with France many of the Scottish volunteer corps and fencible regiments which flourished for a short time all over

in Clanship to crofters’ war

This chapter highlights the fact that morale is a force that comes from within, and which makes a soldier carry out his duty, but can be influenced by external factors such as regimental loyalty, efficient administration, good leadership and patriotism. It considers a number of methodological issues that are of relevance in developing the study of British Expeditionary Force units. The differences between discipline in Irish and other British regiments are considered, and comparisons between civil and military law are made. Irish soldiers can much more meaningfully be compared with their counterparts in the Scottish highland regiments than with French colonial or Austro-Hungarian troops. Finally, the chapter discusses an issue surrounding discipline and morale that can be meaningfully considered in a thematic form, namely the attempts made to maintain high morale in the Irish regiments during the Great War.

in The Irish regiments in the Great War

produced and the soldiers who fought on both sides. Old heroes made new: Highlanders One result was that those regiments serving with both Havelock and Campbell received disproportionate press coverage. As chance would have it, several Highland regiments (or contingents of those regiments) served with both men during the first and second reliefs of Lucknao. 14 Moreover, it

in Martial races
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The inter-imperial uses of a racially gendered language

Soldiers in Scottish Highland regiments were no less constructed than their counterparts in the Indian Army. In fact, perhaps because they were British soldiers and thus more familiar to Britons, both officers and public commentators were more candid about the artificiality of ‘Highlandness’ within the regiments. By the late nineteenth century, it was common knowledge that the kilted Highland regiments

in Martial races
Life as a ‘martial race’ soldier

of martial races, it seems that many Sikhs entered military service not because they loved it, but because they had to. In the Highlands, the situation was both similar and different. In the end, soldiers who enlisted in the Highland regiments tended, like their Sikh counterparts, to do so out of necessity. The reasons, too, stemmed from the painful process of integrating the

in Martial races

for our appearance.42 Sergeant Campbell’s account gives an idea of the unusual sight kilted soldiers made on the European continent at the time of the Napoleonic Wars The Scottish dreamscape: spread55 (1803–15). Indeed, before 1815, even British citizens sometimes failed to recognise Highland regiments as their own troops. A soldier by the name of Allan Macpherson of the 42nd Highland Regiment of Foot noted on his return from North America, in 1762: I arrived from America in the year of 1762 (at Bristol). I was dressed in the uniform of the 42nd or Royal

in Warrior dreams

about it than he does. It is performance that makes the Scot and the Belgian of the past. Together, the continental re-­enactors cover roughly two millennia of Scottish history. They portray ‘Scottish’ Celts and Picts, throwing rocks at the Romans over Hadrian’s Wall. They perform as medieval warriors, fighting the English alongside Wallace and Bruce in Scotland’s wars of independence (c.1296–1328). They are Highland mercenaries in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), Jacobite rebels on their way to defeat at Culloden (1745–46), British Highland regiments fighting the

in Warrior dreams
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J.W.M. Hichberger

perfect unison, each depicted as brave, steadfast and cheerful. Most significantly, the regiment is a Highland one, the 93rd making an heroic stand at Balaclava. 8 Despite the numerical minority of Scottish regiments in the late Victorian army, the Scottish soldier received more pictorial coverage than any other. The Highland regiments, with their kilt and plaid uniforms, dominate. Their picturesque

in Images of the army
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highland regiments than with French colonial or Austro-Hungarian troops.19 Equally, such generalisations can be based on a crude caricature of discipline in the British army. As 2471Intro 6/2/03 4 12:04 pm Page 4 The Irish regiments in the Great War Gary Sheffield has shown, the manner in which disciplinary measures were employed differed markedly between units and discipline in a regular battalion took a very different form to that in a Territorial Force unit.20 The present work came about as an attempt to re-evaluate discipline and morale in the British army as

in The Irish regiments in the Great War