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Author: Irene O'Daly

John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors.

By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views.

The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.

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The rise and fall of progressive education
Laura Tisdall

regulated, material conditions improved and the child’s needs came to the forefront in education and parenting, before a sharp downturn in the 1970s and 1980s as the permissive shift was curtailed. 33 At the same time, the history of education has been peculiarly and unfairly neglected by historians who do not specialise in it. Peter Mandler has put forward a compelling case for its integration into the wider

in A progressive education?
Urban culture, authority and education in early modern Zwickau
Alan S. Ross

, accessibility, tuition and lodging fees, and so on. A number of letters to Daum from parents and guardians enquiring about the state of the school and its curriculum attests to the fact that pupils and their parents did not take their choice of school lightly, and did ample research before deciding on one.26 32 Daum’s boys Local education and central government The electorate of Saxony long served as the prime example for an expansion of centralised authority into matters of schooling by historians wishing to integrate the history of education into that of the emergence of

in Daum’s boys
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Childhood encounters with history in British culture, 1750–1914

Pasts at play examines nineteenth-century children as active consumers of a variety of British pasts, from the biblical and classical to the medieval and early modern. This interdisciplinary collection bridges different disciplinary approaches to chart shifting markets for historical education between 1750 and 1914: a critical period in the development of children's culture, as children became target consumers for publishers. Boys and girls across the social classes often experienced different pasts simultaneously for the purpose of amusement and instruction.

Play provides a dynamic lens through which to explore children’s interaction with the past as a didactic vehicle. Encompassing the past as both subject and site for production and consumption of earlier pasts (historical, mythical or imagined), each contributor reconstructs children’s encounters with different media to uncover the cultural work of individual pasts and exposes the key role of playfulness in the British historical imagination.

These ten essays argue that only through exploring the variety of media and different pasts marketed to children can we fully understand the scope of children’s interactions with the past. Sources, from games to guidebooks and puzzles to pageants, represent the range of visual, performative, material and textual cultures analysed here to develop fresh methodologies and new perspectives on children’s culture and the uses of the past.

Bringing together scholars from across a range of disciplines, including Classics, English and History, this volume is for researchers and students interested in the afterlives of the past, the history of education, and child consumerism and interaction.

How childhood changed in mid-twentieth-century English schools
Author: Laura Tisdall

A Progressive Education? argues that concepts of both childhood and adolescence were transformed in English and Welsh primary and secondary modern schools between 1918 and 1979, and that, by putting childhood at the centre of the history of education, we can challenge the stories we tell about how and why schooling itself changed. A ‘progressive’ or ‘child-centred’ education began to emerge theoretically in the United States and Western Europe from the late nineteenth century, claiming to rewrite curriculums to suit children and young people’s needs, wants and abilities. Existing work suggests that progressivism both rose and retreated in Britain in the 1960s and 1970s, when a right-wing backlash against permissive teaching and the deschooling movement led to the imposition of central state control over education. However, the child-centred pedagogies that became mainstream in English and Welsh schools after 1945 rested on a fundamentally different vision of childhood. Unlike utopian deschoolers, post-war child-centred educationalists assumed that the achievements of mass democracy and the welfare state must be carefully preserved. Children needed to be socialised by adult educators to ensure that they acquired the necessary physical, intellectual, social and emotional maturity to become full citizens. Teachers, far from enthusiastically advocating child-centred methods, perceived them as a profound challenge to their authority in the classroom, and implemented them partially and reluctantly. Child-centred education, in alliance with developmental psychology, thus promoted a much more restrictive and pessimistic image of childhood and youth as it came to dominate mainstream schooling after the Second World War.

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Public good or finishing school?
Robert Chernomas, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson

This chapter looks at how education – once understood as a “great leveller,” a pillar of broad democratic participation, and a means of self-development - has been transformed under neoliberalism into a means for maintaining and sharpening existing distributions wealth and power. Beginning with a brief history of education as a key plank of liberal democratic reform, the chapter moves first to examine the radically eroded potential of K-12 education as a means for improving “equality of opportunity.” It then proceeds to describe and evaluate the means and the effects of the neoliberalisation of universities. For both K-12 and universities, the chapter looks at trends in the scale and source of funding, in the privatization of education, and in the influence of neoliberal doctrines of competition and individual choice as guides for education policy and practice.

in Neoliberal lives
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Radical education, past and present
Jessica Gerrard

-based education for itself: engulfing diverse community claims to knowledge and education within a neat historical arc of institutional ‘progress’ in state schooling. In this approach, the defining historical objects and events are the changes in state education policy and practice prompted by campaign and political pressure. And while these changes are indeed worthy of study, reflection and examination, a sole focus on such events obfuscates a range of other histories of education and social change. Glossed over are the nuanced and distinct differences in the ways in which the

in Radical childhoods
Jennifer Mori

from the realms of politics. Notes 1 Stoye, English Travellers Abroad, pp. 39–40, 310–12; Black, The British Abroad, pp. 216–17; Cohen, ‘The Grand Tour: constructing the English gentleman in eighteenth-century France’, History of Education, 21 (1992), 241–57; Add MS 35471, Charles Bentinck to Robert Keith, 10 May 1751, f. 63. 2 Anderson, Britain’s Discovery of Russia, pp. 1–15; Edward Said, Orientalism (New York, 1978); Nigel Leask, British Romantic Writers and the East: Anxieties of Empire (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 17–25; P.J. Marshall, ‘Lord Macartney, India and China

in The culture of diplomacy
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Tamson Pietsch

, 1966 ); For Africa and India, see Clive Whitehead, ‘The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part I: India’, History of Education , 34, no. 3 ( 2005 ): 315–29; Clive Whitehead, ‘The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire’, History of Education , 34, no. 4 (2005

in Empire of scholars
Jessica Gerrard

found. I take up these conceptual threads more concretely in the concluding chapter, in which I return more explicitly to the themes and questions raised here, and reflect comparatively on the SSS and BSS movements. Notes   1 See J. Gerrard, ‘Tracing radical working-class education: praxis and historical representation’, History of Education, 41:4 (2012), 537–58.   2 See H. White, The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987).   3 S. J. Ball, ‘Intellectuals or technicians? The urgent role

in Radical childhoods