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Point of view and communication
Author: James Zborowski

This book explores the theoretical and critical concept of filmic point of view. Its case studies are six acclaimed and accomplished instances of ‘classical Hollywood cinema’: Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (Capra, 1936), Only Angels Have Wings (Hawks, 1939), Letter from an Unknown Woman (Ophuls, 1948), Vertigo (Hitchcock, 1958), Anatomy of a Murder (Preminger, 1959), and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (Ford, 1962). The book’s particular contributions to the study of filmic point of view are to use ‘communication’ as an idea which permits new ways of approaching this topic, and to offer detailed explorations of the filmic representation of character experience (including character ‘consciousness’ and interaction), and of the relationship of film to other media of communication (especially print media and the novel). With respect to character experience, it is argued that the often-held distinction between an inner realm of thought and feeling and an outer realm of behaviour and objects fails to do justice to the human experience of ‘being-in-the-world’ and film’s ability to represent it. With respect to film’s relationship to other media, it explores the traversing of the public, the private and the social that narrative fiction film represents, in a way that aligns the medium with the novel. The book is offered as a demonstration and defence of the value of a ‘conversational’ critical method that entails detailed scrutiny of our film-viewing experiences and of the language we use to describe those experiences, and eschews the construction of a taxonomy designed for general applicability.

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Point of view and communication
James Zborowski

Introduction: point of view and communication This book engages closely with six masterpieces of the classical Hollywood cinema under three large topic headings. The films are (in chronological order, rather than as ordered in this book): Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (Capra, 1936), Only Angels Have Wings (Hawks, 1939), Letter from an Unknown Woman (Ophuls, 1948), Vertigo (Hitchcock, 1958), Anatomy of a Murder (Preminger, 1959) and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (Ford, 1962). The topics are point of view, distance and communication. I offer what follows as a work of

in Classical Hollywood cinema
James Zborowski

all that it implies upon how works of art are apprehended by their audiences; and, standing between these two concerns just mentioned, the relationship that the medium establishes between the camera’s human subjects and film audiences. One way in which Benjamin views photography and cinema is as forms of transcription. The near instantaneity of the capturing of photographic images is what allows art, for the first time, to keep pace with life as it unfolds: 46  Classical Hollywood cinema [P]hotography freed the hand of the most important artistic functions … Since

in Classical Hollywood cinema
James Zborowski

films (and my case study films in particular). 8  Classical Hollywood cinema Representing character consciousness in novels and films The ability of prose narration to represent human consciousness is one important topic within studies of literary point of view. So successful and subtle are novelistic representations of human consciousness that critics and theorists who compare novels and films often find the latter markedly inferior in this regard. George Bluestone, in his book Novels into Film (1966), suggests that ‘The rendition of mental states – memory, dream

in Classical Hollywood cinema
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Categories and conversations
James Zborowski

upon questionable assumptions about a division between an inner realm of thought and feeling and an outer realm of behaviour. In presenting my argument, I attempted to 112  Classical Hollywood cinema s­ ummarise and synthesise the arguments of a range of thinkers, and I drew upon and appealed to my experiences of engaging with my case study films, and sought to do justice on the page to these experiences by trying to arrive at the most precise and evocative descriptions and formulations possible. I drew upon concepts such as ‘being-in-the-world’, for example, but

in Classical Hollywood cinema
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Education, communication and film studies
James Zborowski

) as friends, who offer us company, which we choose (or choose not) to keep.2 It is, however, also crucial for Booth that such metaphorical conversations and friendships give rise to conversations between live (if not co-present) interlocutors: ‘To me the most important 116  Classical Hollywood cinema of all critical tasks is to participate in – and thus to reinforce – a critical culture, a vigorous conversation, that will nourish in return those who feed us with their narratives.’3 Stanley Cavell suggests that criticism is ‘a natural extension of conversation

in Classical Hollywood cinema
James Zborowski

communication in relation to its object of study, it will often conceive of it in terms of what Bordwell aptly describes as ‘the classic communication diagram: a message is passed from sender to receiver’.3 This is the way that communication is 86  Classical Hollywood cinema c­ onceptualised within accounts of filmic narratology and point of view that postulate ‘sending’ entities such as implied authors and narrators and corresponding ‘receiving’ entities such as implied readers and narratees. It is the way that Kristin Thompson describes what she sees as a widespread

in Classical Hollywood cinema
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

Rehabilitation Administration, stated in his November 1943 acceptance address: ‘We must be guided not alone by the compelling force of human sentiments but also by dictates of sound common sense and of mutual interest.’ 8 However, it is to those ‘human sentiments’ that Hollywood cinema’s ‘sorrowful spectacle’ of suffering children (sorrowful meaning both showing and causing grief) is most likely (and

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Editor: Paul Grainge

As a technology able to picture and embody the temporality of the past, cinema has become central to the mediation of memory in modern cultural life. The memory of film scenes and movies screens, cinema and cinema-going, has become integral to the placement and location of film within the cultural imagination of this century and the last. This book is a sustained, interdisciplinary perspective on memory and film from early cinema to the present. The first section examines the relationship between official and popular history and the constitution of memory narratives in and around the production and consumption of American cinema. The second section examines the politics of memory in a series of chapters that take as their focus three pivotal sites of national conflict in postwar America. This includes the war in Vietnam, American race relations and the Civil Rights Movement, and the history of marginality in the geographic and cultural borderlands of the US. The book explores the articulation of Vietnam. The final section concentrates on the issue of mediation; it explores how technological and semiotic shifts in the cultural terrain have influenced the coding and experience of memory in contemporary cinema. It considers both the presence of music and colour in nostalgia films of the 1990s and the impact of digital and video technologies on the representational determinants of mediated memory. The book also examines the stakes of cultural remembering in the United States and the means by which memory has been figured through Hollywood cinema.

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Author: Ann Davies

Daniel Calparsoro, a director who has contributed to the contemporary scene in Spanish and Basque cinema, has provoked strong reactions from the critics. Reductively dismissed as a purveyor of crude violence by those critics lamenting a ‘lost golden age’ of Spanish filmmaking, Calparsoro's films reveal in fact a more complex interaction with trends and traditions in both Spanish and Hollywood cinema. This book is a full-length study of the director's work, from his early social realist films set in the Basque Country to his later forays into the genres of the war and horror film. It offers an in-depth film-by-film analysis, while simultaneously exploring the function of the director in the contemporary Spanish context, the tension between directors and critics, and the question of national cinema in an area—the Basque Country—of heightened national and regional sensitivities.