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Jacques Gerstenkorn

This article describes the powerplay around the recent discovery (summer 2015) of eighteenth-century Jewish graves in the French city of Lyon. Prior to the French Revolution, Jews had no right to have their own cemeteries, and the corpses of the deceased were buried in the basement of the local catholic hospital, the Hôtel- Dieu. In recent years this centrally located building was completely renovated and converted into a retail complex selling luxury brands. The discovery and subsequent identification of the graves – and of some human remains – led to a complex confrontation between various actors: archaeologists, employed either by the municipality or by the state; religious authorities (mostly Lyons chief rabbi); the municipality itself; the private construction companies involved; direct descendants of some of the Jews buried in the hospital‘s basement; as well as the local media. The question of what to do with the graves took centre stage, and while exhumations were favoured by both archaeologists and the representatives of the families, the chief rabbi – supported by the construction companies – proved reluctant to exhume, for religious reasons. In the first part of his article the author details the origins of this Jewish funerary place and current knowledge about it. He then goes on to analyse what was at stake in the long negotiations, arguing that the memory of the Holocaust played a role in the attitude of many of the parties involved. By way of conclusion he considers the decision not to exhume the graves and elaborates on the reasons why this led to some dissatisfaction.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

Photography that could easily appear in a volume on ‘human rights photography’: the two chapters on the campaign against atrocities in the Congo (by Twomey and by Kevin Grant), one on the Armenian genocide (by Peter Balakian), and one on how Holocaust memory affected the Western reception of photos of suffering from Biafra (by Heerten). Of course, to avoid violating Twomey’s point about respecting earlier interpretive languages, such a volume on human rights photography would

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps
Lasse Heerten
Arua Oko Omaka
Kevin O'Sullivan
, and
Bertrand Taithe

Holocaust comparisons. This rhetoric and the visual connections were of vital importance. Right from the start, when these images began arriving in Western publics, published in mass media outlets, they were read with references to what we – at least now – call the Holocaust. In the period, something that may be dubbed ‘Holocaust memory’ was beginning to form. Already then, the images of the liberation of the camps from 1945, taken by soldiers or photographers that accompanied

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Contemporary French cinema and the Second World War

Nazi-occupied France, 16 July 1942. The French police arrest 13,152 Jewish residents of Paris and hold them at the Vélodrome d’Hiver before facilitating their deportation to extermination camps, over two-thirds to Auschwitz. Not until 1995, on the fifty-third anniversary of the Vél’ d’Hiv roundup, was the French authorities’ complicity in this event officially acknowledged in a speech by newly elected president Jacques Chirac: ‘France, land of the Enlightenment and of Human Rights … France, on that day, committed an irreparable act.’ Reframing remembrance: Contemporary French cinema and the Second World War argues that Chirac’s speech marked a shift in the way French society, and its filmmakers, commemorated the Second World War. By following Henry Rousso’s model (outlined in Le syndrome de Vichy), viewing historical films as vectors of memory, this book analyses cinematic representations of the Occupation as expressions of commemoration. It charts the evolution of Second World War stories told on French screens and argues that more recent films are concerned with the collective experience of the Occupation, the pedagogical responsibility of historical films and with adopting a self-reflective approach to their narrative structures. With its catalogue-like structure and clear thematic analysis of key concepts such as resistance, collaboration and legacy, Reframing remembrance is an informative and accessible investigation into French cinema and its treatment of the Second World War.

Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine
Philip Spencer

the kind of radicalism we have in mind with a few brief examples drawn from leading left intellectuals of the recent period. The historian Tony Judt wrote in the New York Review of Books that Holocaust memory crowded out all other injustices by treating the Holocaust not as one evil among many but as ‘radical evil’. He maintained that the charge of antisemitism was being politically instrumentalised: Today, when

in Antisemitism and the left
Robert Gildea
Olga Manojlović Pintar

narratives were forged by the national liberations of 1944–45, the onset of the Cold War and wars of decolonisation. These were challenged and modified by East–West détente after 1956, the Six Day War of 1967, the events of 1968, the eruption of Holocaust memory in the 1970s and 1980s and the end of the Cold War which accelerated both globalisation and the rise of populist nationalism in post-Cold War Europe. The memory of transnational resistance, which for a long while was buried by these dominant narratives, gradually but unevenly broke once again into the public sphere

in Fighters across frontiers
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: and

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Abstract only
Tom Lawson

. But, it is also the result of changes in the contexts in which those sources are considered, and in which their meanings are sought – changes, as it were, in the present rather than the past. As such I can say without fear of endorsing denial that the Holocaust has been constructed, and reconstructed, in the post-war world. 5 Lawson 00_Lawson 08/09/2010 14:00 Page 6 DEBATES ON THE HOLOCAUST Of course this is not a novel idea – studies of Holocaust memory have become vogue and indeed there now exists an orthodox interpretation of the narrative of that memory from

in Debates on the Holocaust
David Deutsch

resulted in formal constitutional acceptance, merging some religious ideals into the country’s declaration of independence and incorporating religious regulations into state legislation.40 A correlation of Holocaust memory construction in the late 1940s and early 1950s with the birth of a Jewish state led to an implicit understanding between Orthodox and secular Zionists. Both saw Israel as an antithesis of the desperate reality of Diaspora Jewry. Both groups adopted the post-​war mythical and apocalyptic narration –​‘from holocaust to revival’ –​in the form of heroic

in Human remains in society
The ruins of memory and Holocaust historiography
Tom Lawson

doing the remembering (rather than the culture being remembered). Perhaps the most obvious example, which will be explored in more detail later in the chapter, is that memory can be gendered – and as such women frequently remember their Holocaust pasts within the framework of traditional gender expectations, constructing themselves and other women as care-givers and home-makers. Men can construct their 281 Lawson 08_Lawson 08/09/2010 13:41 Page 282 DEBATES ON THE HOLOCAUST memories according to conceptions of masculinity too, constructing themselves and other men

in Debates on the Holocaust