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The punk and post-punk worlds of Manchester, London, Liverpool and Sheffield, 1975–80
Author: Nick Crossley

This book argues that punk and post-punk, whatever their respective internal stylistic heterogeneity, enjoyed 'sociological reality' in Samuel Gilmore's and Howard Becker's sense. It elaborates the concept of 'music worlds', contrasting it with alternatives from the sociological literature. In particular it contrasts it with the concepts 'subculture', 'scene' and 'field'. The book then outlines a number of concepts which allow us to explore the localised process in which punk took shape in a sociologically rigorous manner. In particular it discusses the concepts of 'critical mass' and 'social networks'. The book also applies these concepts to the London punk world of 1976. It considers how talk about punk migrated from face-to-face networks to mass media networks and the effects of that shift. Continuing the discussion of punk's diffusion and growth, the book considers how punk worlds took shape in Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield. In addition, however, the book offers a more technical analysis of the network structures of the post-punk worlds of the three cities. Furthermore, extending this analysis, and combining qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis, the book considers how activities in different local post-punk worlds were themselves linked in a network, constituting a national post-punk world.

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Nick Crossley

2 Music worlds In the previous chapter I suggested that punk and post-punk are best conceived, for sociological purposes, as ‘music worlds’, a concept I  adapt from Howard Becker’s notion of ‘art worlds’ (1951, 1963, 1974, 1976, 1982, 1995, 2004, 2006a, 2006b; Faulkner and Becker 2009; see also Bottero and Crossley 2011; Finnegan 1989; Lopes 2002; Martin 1995, 2005, 2006a, 2006b). In this chapter I elaborate upon this concept. Before I do, however, I briefly review three alternative conceptions, explaining why I have chosen ‘music worlds’ over them. As much

in Networks of sound, style and subversion
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Nick Crossley

11 Conclusion In this book, drawing upon Howard Becker’s (1982) concept of ‘art worlds’, I have conceptualised punk and post-punk as ‘music worlds’ existing both on the local, city level and also spanning towns and cities, on a national level. Concentrating upon the 1975–80 period I have tried to explain: 1 The emergence of the first UK punk world, in London. 2 The process of diffusion which carried punk to other towns and cities, leading to the emergence of punk worlds in those cities too. 3 The transformation of punk, in several of these worlds, into

in Networks of sound, style and subversion
The portrayal of tattoos in Sarah Hall’s The electric Michelangelo and Alan Kent’s Voodoo pilchard
Hywel Dix

. This question can fruitfully be considered through recourse to Howard Becker’s sociological concept of the ‘art world’. Becker defines an ‘art world’ as the sum total of social relationships and productive forces without whose mutual and carefully orchestrated collaboration no individual work of art could be created or distributed to an audience (Becker 2008 : 35). The concept of the art world helps to overhaul the longstanding, romantic notion that works of art are the unique products of the individual aesthetic geniuses who produce them

in Tattoos in crime and detective narratives
Kuba Szreder

discussions with them into the wee hours, and investing the unmeasurable labor of love (of art) and the labor of producing process. This investment includes critical work that does not always surface in the exhibition materials like the catalogue and guide (Yúdice 2003 : 327–28). The importance of this type of labour usually remains unnoticed as no authorial credits are attributed to the support personnel, a category proposed by Howard Becker to denote groups of people whose labour is

in The ABC of the projectariat
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Testimonial knowledge as ongoing memory transmission
Audrey Rousseau

refusal to be subsumed by the abyss’ ( Memory effects , p. 4). 20 The term is derived from Howard Becker's notion of ‘moral entrepreneurs’ (Howard Becker, Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance (New York: Free Press, 1973)). That notion originally described a subject seeking to influence a group to adopt or maintain a norm, for example the Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) who created awareness and generated reforms to the

in Legacies of the Magdalen Laundries
Kuba Szreder

Howard Becker, Pierre Bourdieu and other sociologists of art assert (Becker 1984 ; Bourdieu 1996 ), artists are able to indulge in infinite ideation because they are partially sheltered from the administrative pressures or other organisational necessities by people occupying the ‘subsidiary positions of organizers, advisers, negotiators’. In other words, the autonomy of artists derives from the → labour of love of multitudes of technicians, assistants, curators, etc., who administer, produce, distribute and organise artistic production. To go

in The ABC of the projectariat
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Peter J. Martin

:48 am Page 6 Introduction in contemporary sociology. In particular, it is a perspective which is developed in Howard Becker’s Art Worlds (1982), a work which, as will become evident, I believe to be an enormously fruitful source for the sociology of cultural production. Sociologists who have pursued these matters in recent years have come to converge on an approach that is not primarily concerned with the deciphering of texts, or with the ‘style’, or indeed with deciding the ‘quality’, of the music in question. Rather, their main interest is in what people do with

in Music and the sociological gaze
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Tobias B. Hug

explanations of imposture as merely deviant activity or a pathological lie (pseudologia phantastica). The labelling theory as originally proposed by Howard Becker encourages us to focus on the contexts in which the label ‘impostor’ and its related variants were applied and offers some useful thoughts to examine the relationship between ‘impostor’ and community and the process of social definition. Although the theory is not primarily understood here in a Foucaultian sense that authorities create deviant behaviour, there is clearly a difference between being labelled an

in Impostures in early modern England
Marie Keenan

Investigation (Dublin: Government Stationery Office, 1993). North Western Health Board Review Group, West of Ireland Farmer Case: Report of the Review Group (Dublin: Government Stationery Office, 1998). These questions are based on questions that were offered first in Charles Ragin and Howard Becker, What Is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 231. For fuller elaboration of issues involved here see Keenan, Child Sexual Abuse. Hannah Arendt, The Portable Hannah Arendt (New York: Penguin Classics, 2000). James

in Are the Irish different?