At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
itself became an increasing
embarrassment and slowly slid down the scale of Commission priorities. The
bolting on to development ‘policy’ of other continents, and the separate
existence of a badly run HumanitarianOffice (ECHO), brought the lie to the
Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development
policy. Much has been devoted to burying Lomé without appearing to do so.
By Lomé IV in 1990 it was arguably brain-dead, if a Convention can so be.
Yet it was renewed for a further ambitious ten years, and not five as before.
Cotonou capped that in
implementation that it undertook – the Tourism Unit, the Med programme, the European Community
HumanitarianOfﬁce (ECHO), the Leonardo programme and the Nuclear
Safety programmes for Eastern Europe, it became apparent that fraud,
irregularities and mismanagement had occurred, but that the Commissioners in charge had no direct active involvement; they were, however, deemed
guilty of omissions, since in claiming that they had not known what was
going on in their departments, they admitted to serious failures. Once they
had found out about the problems, they failed to act on time
external (mainly political/security)
relations DG Enlargement, along with the European Community HumanitarianOffice (ECHO) and the newly created EUROPE AID, both of which deal
with the allocation, disbursement and assessment of aid to third countries.
The various external relations commissioners meet regularly to coordinate
In 1996 the Commission produced a discussion paper on the future of
ACP–EU relations. Commonly referred to as ‘the Green Paper’ (CEC, 1997),
the text marked the start of a fundamental shift in the Commission position
transferred from the
employment of MSF.
IRW in Bangladesh was caught between two stools:
regarded with suspicion politically by the secular government (which
has generally been hospitable to every kind of NGO) and criticized
by others as not Islamic enough. The question of mosques was
specially significant: ‘ECHO [the European Community
military. As a result, the number of NGOs grew
exponentially during the 1990s ( Macrae and Zwi 1994 ). By the late 1990s,
substantial funding (up to 60–70%) was provided to NGOs by
the largest donors to humanitarian emergencies, the European
Community HumanitarianOffice and the Office for United States
Foreign Disaster Assistance ( Rigby 2001 ). With time, the presence and influence of NGOs
Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), the European
Community HumanitarianOffice (ECHO), the Rapid Reaction Mechanism
(RRM), and the Committee (funding) for Asia and Latin America (ALA) are
located in the Commission. Similarly, the core institutional developments
found in the policies of assurance are the Stabilisation and Association
Process (SAP) and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, both of