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Practice and policy lessons from Northern Ireland and the Border Counties
Author: Sandra Buchanan

Transforming Conflict examines lessons learned from the Northern Ireland and Border Counties conflict transformation process through social and economic development and their consequent impacts and implications for practice and policymaking, with a range of functional recommendations produced for other regions emerging from and seeking to transform violent conflict. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the region’s transformation activity, largely amongst grassroots actors, enabled by a number of specific funding programmes, namely the International Fund for Ireland, Peace I and II and INTERREG I, II and IIIA. These programmes have facilitated conflict transformation over more than two decades, presenting a case ripe for lesson sharing. In focusing on the politics of the socioeconomic activities that underpinned the elite negotiations of the peace process, key theoretical transformation concepts are firstly explored, followed by an examination of the social and economic context of Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The three programmes and their impacts are then assessed before considering what policy lessons can be learned and what recommendations can be made for practice. This is underpinned by a range of semi-structured interviews and the author’s own experience as a project promoter through these programmes in the Border Counties for more than a decade.

Interreg and the cross-border dimension
Giada Lagana

. However, the EU also played an important role in facilitating negotiations, in rendering the border between the North and the South more permeable, and in making available structural and cohesion funds that helped to develop the border region’s depressed economy ( Lagana 2017 ). As a result, cross-border cooperation has increased substantially in the past several years. This chapter will focus on the EU’s Interreg

in Ireland and the European Union
Sandra Buchanan

Of the three conflict transformation programmes which Northern Ireland and the Border Counties have benefited from, two, the IFI and the Peace programmes, were specifically tailored for the region. Together with the INTERREG I, II and III(A) programmes, they have directly contributed over €3.25 billion to the region since 1986. While intricate

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Abstract only
Sandra Buchanan

INTERREG I, II and III programmes, since 1991. All have facilitated the conflict transformation process in the region specifically through social and economic development. 1 Collectively, having contributed over €3.25 billion to the process, they have been responsible for a huge increase in transformation practice, particularly at the grassroots level, prompting previously unforeseen levels of citizen empowerment and

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Sandra Buchanan

money went to the most disadvantaged areas; that the civil servants who administered the Fund on the Board’s behalf did not do so fairly; and that the Board was too subservient to the British and Irish governments’. 7 Like INTERREG I and II, very little consultation had taken place beforehand – there had been no vertical or horizontal capacity development or integration, nor were

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
Sandra Buchanan

conditions whereby you prevent disadvantage being the reason for not cooperating in other areas of life. 3 This is supported by a belief among interviewees that economic (and social) development can spill over to political cooperation. Key to this is the building of relationships that often did not previously exist, as the INTERREG

in Transforming conflict through social and economic development
The external dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

from cross-border structural and fund programmes and EU initiatives such as Interreg, has proved compelling. The readi­ness to grasp such opportunities has been helped by changing public attitudes towards cross-border relations and the gradual waning of the political sensitivity of the relationship (see Murphy 2010a). From the Unionist perspective, the work The external dynamics 141 of the NSMC has not energised calls for a united Ireland. The result has been the relatively harmonious development of the North–South relationship under novel cross

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Derek Birrell

Irish Central Border Area Network (ICBAN), was not formed until 1995 and now comprises five district councils in the North and five county councils in the South (see Table 9.8). Funding for the networks came mostly from the European programmes, Interreg 1 and 2, with some funding from each participating council. The networks have sought to promote the border regions in the areas of industrial development, commerce and tourism. The local authority networks continued to develop and in 1999 the three networks devised strategic aims for the border region as a whole, known

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
The economic dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

European Currency Unit (ECU). Table 3.2  Northern Ireland EU structural fund allocations 2007–13 Programme Funding Managing authority European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) €211 million Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (Northern Ireland) European Social Fund (ESF) €114 million Department of Education and Learning (Northern Ireland) Peace III €333 million Special EU Programmes Body Cross-border territorial cooperation programme (INTERREG IVA) €256 million Special EU Programmes Body Source: Department of Finance and Personnel (Northern

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Communities and collaboration along the Irish border
Caroline Creamer and Brendan O’Keeffe

their implementation. These, together with exchequer and other monies, enabled national policies to adapt to reflect the changing European agenda and, increasingly, local cum regional realities. In the case of cross-border and transnational cooperation, the International Fund for Ireland4 (IFI) and the Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (or PEACE programme), both dedicated to Northern Ireland and the southern border counties, aimed to stimulate socio-economic revival and growth. More recently, the EU-wide community initiative, INTERREG, has emphasised

in Spacing Ireland