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Seeking multipolarity, favouring multilateralism, pursuing multialignment
Ian Hall

Well before a multipolar world actually came into being, we believed in its desirability and even its inevitability. 1 India has long sought a multipolar international order. The majority view in its foreign and security policymaking elite is that such an order would be more conducive to India's interests and values than the

in National perspectives on a multipolar order
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Self-sufficiency in a globalised world
Joy Y. Zhang and Saheli Datta Burton

Visions of an Atmanirbhar Bharat or ‘self-resufficient India’ have guided the development of Indian sciences since its independence in 1947. In India, science has always been imagined across its multi-layered social divides as the key mechanism that would bestow the nation and its peoples the self-sufficiency it needed to determine the destiny of self and the nation therein. Each year millions of the nation's pupils sit the joint engineering examinations to become engineers, technologists, software developers. Science, for India's millions

in The elephant and the dragon in contemporary life sciences
Author: Sagarika Dutt

This book looks at India in the context of a globalized world. It starts by looking at the history of Indian civilization, exploring the roots of Indian identity and highlighting processes such as foreign invasions, foreign trade, cultural imperialism, colonial rule and the growth of Indian nationalism. The founding fathers wanted India to be a liberal democracy and the values enshrined in the constitution were expected to form the basis of a society more in tune with the modern world. The book examines the gradual democratization of Indian politics. Cultural and ethnic divisions in Indian society are examined in depth, as are the problems that have prevented economic development and stood in the way of economic liberalization. The history of India's integration into the global economy is considered, and the opportunities available to the country in the early years of the twenty-first century are detailed. Alternative approaches to the development of the country, such as those put forward by Gandhi, are discussed, and the final chapters consider the Indian government's perception of the Indian diaspora, as well as the changing priorities reflected in India's foreign policy since 1947.

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Ainslie T. Embree

‘I’m in love with the country’, the young Rudyard Kipling exulted soon after his arrival in India: ‘I find heat and smells and oils and spices, and puffs of temple incense, and sweat and darkness, and dirt and lust and cruelty, and above all, things wonderful and fascinating innumerable.’ 1 This response to India was transmuted by Kipling’s extraordinary creativity as

in Asia in Western fiction
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Brenda M. King

relative economic strengths of a range of participating countries, often for the first time. In such a vast sub-continent as India it would have been almost impossible for its own citizens to be familiar with all the different types of Indian silk available, let alone visitors from other countries. These displays celebrated nations and empire; they also revealed and created tensions

in Silk and empire
A class-relational approach

Intended for researchers, students, policymakers and practitioners, this book draws on detailed longitudinal fieldwork in rural south India to analyse the conditions of the rural poor and their patterns of change. Focusing on the three interrelated arenas of production, state, and civil society, it argues for a class-relational approach focused on forms of exploitation, domination and accumulation. The book focuses on class relations, how they are mediated by state institutions and civil society organisations, and how they vary within the countryside, when rural-based labour migrates to the city, and according to patterns of accumulation, caste dynamics, and villages’ levels of irrigation and degrees of remoteness. More specifically it analyses class relations in the agriculture and construction sectors, and among local government institutions, social movements, community-based organisations and NGOs. It shows how the dominant class reproduces its control over labour by shaping the activities of increasingly prominent local government institutions, and by exerting influence over the mass of new community-based organisations whose formation has been fostered by neoliberal policy. The book is centrally concerned with countervailing moves to improve the position of classes of labour. Increasingly informalised and segmented across multiple occupations in multiple locations, India’s ‘classes of labour’ are far from passive in the face of ongoing processes of exploitation and domination. Forms of labouring class organisation are often small-scale and tend to be oriented around the state and social policy. Despite their limitations, the book argues that such forms of contestation of government policy currently play a significant role in strategies for redistributing power and resources towards the labouring class, and suggests that they can help to clear the way for more broad-based and fundamental social change.

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Nostalgia, memory and the empire of things
Antoinette Burton

danger is not that it will disappear as a subject, but rather that the staging of its end will produce heroes and heroines in new, and newly seductive, romances of empire. In the case of Raj nostalgia, the challenge is to understand the ways in which the loss of India offers an apparently endless opportunity to see empire – the déjà disparu – one last time, as well as to experience (if not enjoy) its

in British culture and the end of empire

This book deals with the evolution, current status and potential of U.S.–India strategic cooperation. From very modest beginnings, the U.S.–India strategic partnership has developed significantly over the decade 2010–20. In considerable part this growth has stemmed from overlapping concerns about the rise and assertiveness of the People’s Republic of China as well as the instability of Pakistan. Despite the emergence of this partnership, however, significant differences remain. Some of them stem from Cold War legacies, others from divergent global strategic interests and from differences in institutional design. Despite these areas of discord, the overall trajectory of the relationship appears promising. Increased cooperation in several sectors of the relationship and closer policy coordination underscore a deepening of the relationship, while fundamental differences in national approaches to strategic challenges demand flexibility and compromise in the future.

Sagarika Dutt

8 India’s foreign policy and global politics This chapter argues that India’s foreign policy post-independence was based on idealism as well as realism and the desire to function as an autonomous actor in world politics after centuries of colonial rule. Events proved that states had to deal with diverse issues, some involving the management of bilateral relations and others involving international relations and multilateralism. Moreover, India was a developing state, not a major power, and had to contend with asymmetrical relations with the west, notwithstanding

in India in a globalized world
A test case for a rising power
Harsh V. Pant

9 India and Afghanistan: a test case for a rising power Welcoming Afghan President Ashraf Ghani in India in April 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi underlined that “the relationship between India and Afghanistan is not just between two countries or governments. It is a timeless link of human hearts.”1 With that spirit Modi made it clear that India would support Afghanistan’s security forces and open the Attari checkpoint in Punjab to Afghan trucks in order to increase trade between the two countries. Modi stated: “India will walk shoulder to shoulder

in Indian foreign policy