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Lisa Lewis

9 Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history Lisa Lewis ‘Rikki-Tikki-Tavi’, the story that made me a lifelong Kipling enthusiast, is a story of multi-layered meanings. As an animal fable it is accessible to young children like me as a very small girl suffering from terrifying nightmares, to whom a kind aunt read a wonderful story about a strange little animal called a mongoose, who would sit on a child’s bed and keep watch, ready to kill the wicked creatures that lurked in the shadows after the light was turned off. But it is not only a comforting tale of a protecting

in In Time’s eye
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Elite European migrants in the British Empire

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

Shalini Sharma

version of Indian history became so prominent in the 2019 election. I focus on four main developments. First, the recent recovery by the BJP and its allies of the reputation of the early twentieth-century historian and ideologue of Hindu nationalism, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883–1966). Secondly, I look at the continuing fallout from the 1992 destruction of the Babri Masjid mosque in Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh). Then, thirdly, I examine some key recent BJP appointments in national history organisations, and also some of the ‘history wars’ that have surrounded school

in Passionate politics
Grimus and Midnight’s Children
Andrew Teverson

classical form as something that derives exclusively from a postmodernist sensibility, in other words, Rushdie would have us believe that his choice of fictional form derives principally from his desire to negotiate a concept of nationhood and national identity that is diverse, disseminatory and does not ‘add up’ to a single story of a single people or a single tradition. Rushdie’s concern, in Midnight’s Children , to fictionalise an experience of recent Indian history suggests that his novel might potentially be considered as a form of

in Salman Rushdie
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The Veda as an alternative to the Bible
Dorothy Figueira

regarding the Aryan provided a means whereby Indian history could be used to create a fresh historical tradition that expressed specifically European political and ideological interests. What Europeans sought in India was not Indo-European religion, but a reassessment of Judaeo-Christianity. India, What Can It Teach Us? This question, adopted by Max Müller as the title of a collection of essays, addresses the fundamental concern of this chapter, namely, that a fictive India and fictional Aryan ancestors were constructed in the West

in Chosen peoples
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A Married Woman, Babyji and The Ministry of Utmost Happiness
Maryam Mirza

, then, emerges as Astha’s preferred avenue for expressing her dissident desires and for registering, perhaps more to herself than to others, her presence as an individual. In juxtaposing the depiction of queer lives against instances of collective politics in contemporary Indian history which sought to deepen, rather than alleviate, power imbalances, the three novels not only shatter the public

in Resistance and its discontents in South Asian women’s fiction
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Essays on Rudyard Kipling

This book is a collection of essays on Rudyard Kipling and brings historical, literary critical and postcolonial approaches to this perennially controversial writer. The first and fairest thing to say about Kipling is that he has borne a brilliant part in recovering the lost provinces of poetry. Kipling's morality is the morality of someone who has to prove that God is not responsible for part of the world, and that the Devil is. Kipling's imperialist opinions became more strident after the Boer War he lost the esteem of British literary intellectuals, whom he in turn despised. The book addresses Kipling's approach to the Boer war, his involvement with World War One, his Englishness and the politics of literary quotation. It demonstrates the effects of a Kipling-conditioned world on Edward Thomas, Ivor Gurney and David Jones. The book focuses on Kipling's collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actions and Reactions, which was published in October 1909. It also probes the historical subtext of the children's fable Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history, Kipling's search for God, and his longest Indian experience of footloose travel in the Native states of North India. Stalky & Co is the text of Kipling's which features the largest number of quotations. Kipling's notion of the ideally masculine 'army man' in relation to contemporary late Victorian discourses and practices of same-sex passion is analyzed. The book also addresses Kipling's views on the question of fascism, anti-Semitism and the 'doctrine of racial superiority'.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

A distinctive politics?

English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.