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Chris Duke, Michael Osborne and Bruce Wilson

11 The PURE Project and inter-regional learning Introduction – the nature and spread of learning The universal talent for learning was assumed by the organised community many eras ago to belong in part beyond the family group. Schooling began as organised learning required by the young. It was extended over time through young and into early adult years. Informally in recent centuries, and in formal and at times mandatory ways more recently, it has extended through much of the lifespan to include the education and training of adults; in their own interest, and in

in A new imperative
Rethinking Europe’s strategies and policies
Authors: Weiqing Song and Jianwei Wang

Since the mid-1990s, the European Union has defined the Asia-Pacific as one of its key strategic targets on its ambitious road towards global power. The EU has ever since made consistent efforts to implement strategies, policies and activities in the Asia-Pacific. Over the past decades, big changes have taken place on both sides and the wider world. It is high time to evaluate the EU’s performance in its Asian policy. In fact, the EU is at crossroads with its Asia Pacific policy. On several aspects, the EU is compelled to redefine its interests and roles, and rethink its strategies and policies towards the dynamic and ever-important Asia-Pacific region of the contemporary world. This volume addresses this theme, by elaborating the general context, major issues and countries in the EU’s Asia-Pacific policy. It covers issues and areas of traditional security, economy and trade, public diplomacy, and human security and focuses on the EU’s relations with China, Japan, the ASEAN countries and Australasia.

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External influences and continental shaping forces
Mary Farrell

development gap and the recurring ethnic conflicts that continue to impact upon peace and security in several parts of the continent? This chapter addresses these questions through an examination of the EU’s promotion of regional integration, and inter-­regionalism in the context of the Joint Africa–EU Strategic Partnership. The next section considers the rationale behind the EU’s adoption of regional integration as external policy, and how or whether this defines the EU as a normative actor. The third section considers the JAES in some detail, identifying the historical

in The European Union in Africa
Inter-regionalism in a new era
Julie Gilson

2 A European pivot towards Asia? Inter-regionalism in a new era Julie Gilson Introduction In 2009, the US Administration launched its new “pivot” towards Asia, based on the conviction that the “lion’s share of the political and economic history of the 21st century will be written in the Asia-Pacific region” (Campbell and Andrews, 2013: 2; Etzioni, 2012). This idea of a return to Asia, or a rebalancing of key international relations, reflected the growing economic and strategic influence of this region, particularly in the light of the failure of Western markets

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
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Trade, commodities and markets
Peter Maw

number of corporate and institutional sources and will highlight the remarkable diversity of commodities carried on the canals, emphasising not just intra-regional shipments of coal and stone but also inter-regional conveyances of high-value raw materials, foodstuffs and manufactures. The first section explains the data sources and compares the relative extent of the trade on Manchester canals. Section two provides a detailed examination of trade from the point of view of each of Manchester’s canals, before section three examines Manchester’s waterborne trade by

in Transport and the industrial city
Jon Stobart

economy of north-west England in the early industrial period, employing thousands of men and women, generating significant local prosperity and provising vital intra- and inter-regional linkages. As Berg and Hudson suggest, in seeking to understand the processes and geography of industrialisation, we should not ignore changes in the wider economy.104 Unsurprisingly, towns dominated service provision, although rural service activity was widespread and growing, especially in terms of dealing activities in the east of the region. Whilst this can be seen as part of a

in The first industrial region
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Basins, warehouses and wharves in canal-age Manchester
Peter Maw

the Bridgewater Trustees, the Grocers’ Company, and John Kenworthy & Co. in 1855.145 As the building was not designed for the canal trade, it did not feature the internal canal arm characteristic of Manchester’s canal warehouses. The Union and Chorlton Street warehouses were still owned by the Bridgewater Trustees when they sold the Bridgewater Canal in 1872.146 174 Transport and the industrial city The business of the canal warehouse Warehouses stored and transhipped the canals’ high-value, inter-regional commodity trades. Two main types of firms occupied canal

in Transport and the industrial city
Responsive not strategic

This monograph seeks to examine the motivations for the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the EU’s most important relationship with another regional economic integration organisation. This monograph argues that the dominant explanations in the literature -- balancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence, and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – fail to adequately explain the EU’s policy. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensive primary documents, this monograph argues that the major developments in the relationship -- the 1992 Inter-institutional Agreement and the 1995 Europe Mercosur Inter-regional Framework Cooperation Agreement – were initiated by Mercosur and supported mainly by Spain. This means that rather than the EU pursuing a strategy, as implied by most of the existing literature, the EU was largely responsive.

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Regions and higher education in difficult times

The concept of the learning region is central to the way of problem-solving. Like 'lifelong learning' the term is used variously and carelessly. This book explores the meaning and importance of the learning region. Not all universities warm to such local-regional engagement. The unwise pride of global forces and nations undermines it; but even the most prestigious and 'global' university has a local footprint and ever-watchful neighbours. The book arises from the work of PASCAL, an international non-governmental network Observatory. Its name exploits echoes of philosophical depth as well as technical modernity of language, taking the concepts of Place, Social Capital and Learning together with the vital connecting conjunctions of And, to define its mission. At the heart of the story is PASCAL's experience of working with multiple regions and their universities on their experience with engagement. The book examines in turn several central strands mainly of policy but also of process that are illuminated by the PASCAL Universities and Regional Engagement (PURE) project. The PURE processes and outcomes, despite limitations and severe disruption by forces located outside the region and often too the nation, show the potential gain from international networking and shared activities. The book also discusses internal arrangements within the administration before turning to external relations: both with the university and tertiary sector and with other stakeholders in the private and third sectors. Regional innovation systems require entrepreneurialism inside government, higher education and training, as well as within industry from small and medium enterprises to multinationals.

Open Access (free)
Relations between the European Union and Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Hardacre writes, ‘Closely linked to the balancing is the concept of bandwagoning, a related realist concept which describes the joining of regional or inter-regional initiatives so as not to be left out, or behind’ (Hardacre 2009: 37). In this instance, EU–Mercosur inter-regionalism would be activated on the EU side in order that the EU is not left out of the potential success of the FTAA. Furthermore, Hardacre contends that ‘Balancing and bandwagoning are closely related concepts and can be related to inter-regionalism

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: