law as an equally relevant source of international law.
Questions related to customary international law – and especially customary international humanitarian law – have therefore long been of importance to the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross (ICRC). The publication of the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross’s study on ‘Customary International Humanitarian Law’ (the Study) in 2005 is a testament to that. 9 Since 2010, the Study has also been available on the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross’s online database on customary international
Humanitarian diplomacy and the cultures of appeasement in
If, as Karina Urbach writes, ‘what happened during the summer of 1938 was a long theatre performance with an excellent cast of German go-betweens’, then the Sixteenth International Conference of the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross (ICRC) held in London in June that year provided one of the most prestigious settings for these encounters. 1 This spectacle of internationalism reveals the contribution of humanitarian diplomacy to a history of appeasement that has dealt almost exclusively with the masculine ‘high’ diplomacy of the Foreign Office. It is
This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the
world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva,
Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates
the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its
kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of
humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The
book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the
International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red
Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies
(both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with
the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross
and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War.
The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and
those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected
humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers
from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a
place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars
interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested
respected humanitarian NGOs with global reach. These organizations advocate and protect differently. The ICRC uses confidentiality to enhance its ability to negotiate access, while neutrality and impartiality enables the MSF to provide health care almost anywhere in the world.
The InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross. The ICRC was established in 1863 to provide humanitarian assistance to those who are affected by armed conflict and promote laws to protect the “victims of war.” Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman, started the movement after witnessing the
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence
Francisco Javier Martínez
secondary constituent of the international Red Cross Movement. 6 Both authors point to the First World War as the turning point for the ARC. However, I will argue that it was the Cuban war that started its push for world humanitarian power. As I will try to demonstrate, this was a result of the ARC openly challenging for the first time both the model of colonial expansion practised by other national societies and the model of interstate collaboration set up and controlled by the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross (ICRC) since the early days of the Geneva Conference
conflict and not a war between two internationally recognised states.
12 F. Terry , Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action ( New York : Cornell University Press , 2002 ), pp. 42 – 3 .
13 Mageli, Med rett til å hjelpe , p. 244.
14 Red Cross Archives, National Archives Oslo (RCA), P250/2/423N: INALWA, Torstein Dale to Samuel A. Gonard, 13 September 1968. RCA, P250/1/423N: ‘Videre helt generelt’, Dale to Gonard, 15 January 1969.
15 D. P. Forsythe , Humanitarian Politics: The InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross ( Baltimore : Johns
between 1914 and 1918, frequently acting as a clearing house for the work of other voluntary agencies that sought to care for the needs of their servicemen abroad. 5 The Red Cross’s involvement in the lives of POWs was also reflected in the work of the ‘Central Agency’, responsible for tracing the whereabouts of prisoners and communicating this information to the belligerent governments, and expressly acknowledged in the first POW Convention, signed in July 1929, which recognised the ‘humanitarian activities’ of the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross (ICRC). 6
the British government, the High Commission and non-governmental
organisations. The InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross and Amnesty
International investigated the treatment of detainees. The results of
these and the government’s own inquiries will be assessed.
Impact of the ‘five
techniques’ on intelligence and security
When the histories of the
‘five techniques’ were
wounded or sick’. 72
Schindler and Toman, 365. For earlier instances
of efforts to protect the wounded and sick see Green, Essays , ch.
6; Boissier, History of
the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross , vol. I,
From Solferino to Tsushima , 1985 , Part II, ch.
aid to soldiers and he followed up on his plan immediately afterwards. Humanitarianism – in the version that became accepted over time, and which has influenced one part of its studies – ended up being represented simply as the ‘good creature’ that came to life out of the horrors of war.
Historiography has now effectively called into question the trend of overlapping the foundation of the Red Cross and the origins of humanitarianism, 2 but the birth in Geneva of the InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross (ICRC) definitely marked a turning point. It led