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Iris Müller

law as an equally relevant source of international law. Questions related to customary international law – and especially customary international humanitarian law – have therefore long been of importance to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The publication of the International Committee of the Red Cross’s study on ‘Customary International Humanitarian Law’ (the Study) in 2005 is a testament to that. 9 Since 2010, the Study has also been available on the International Committee of the Red Cross’s online database on customary international

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
Humanitarian diplomacy and the cultures of appeasement in Britain
Rebecca Gill

If, as Karina Urbach writes, ‘what happened during the summer of 1938 was a long theatre performance with an excellent cast of German go-betweens’, then the Sixteenth International Conference of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) held in London in June that year provided one of the most prestigious settings for these encounters. 1 This spectacle of internationalism reveals the contribution of humanitarian diplomacy to a history of appeasement that has dealt almost exclusively with the masculine ‘high’ diplomacy of the Foreign Office. It is

in The Red Cross Movement
Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

Abstract only
Kelly-Kate Pease

respected humanitarian NGOs with global reach. These organizations advocate and protect differently. The ICRC uses confidentiality to enhance its ability to negotiate access, while neutrality and impartiality enables the MSF to provide health care almost anywhere in the world. The International Committee of the Red Cross. The ICRC was established in 1863 to provide humanitarian assistance to those who are affected by armed conflict and promote laws to protect the “victims of war.” Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman, started the movement after witnessing the

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence (1895–1898)
Francisco Javier Martínez

secondary constituent of the international Red Cross Movement. 6 Both authors point to the First World War as the turning point for the ARC. However, I will argue that it was the Cuban war that started its push for world humanitarian power. As I will try to demonstrate, this was a result of the ARC openly challenging for the first time both the model of colonial expansion practised by other national societies and the model of interstate collaboration set up and controlled by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) since the early days of the Geneva Conference

in The Red Cross Movement
The Norwegian Red Cross and Biafra, 1967–1970
Eldrid Mageli

conflict and not a war between two internationally recognised states. 12 F. Terry , Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action ( New York : Cornell University Press , 2002 ), pp. 42 – 3 . 13 Mageli, Med rett til å hjelpe , p. 244. 14 Red Cross Archives, National Archives Oslo (RCA), P250/2/423N: INALWA, Torstein Dale to Samuel A. Gonard, 13 September 1968. RCA, P250/1/423N: ‘Videre helt generelt’, Dale to Gonard, 15 January 1969. 15 D. P. Forsythe , Humanitarian Politics: The International Committee of the Red Cross ( Baltimore : Johns

in The Red Cross Movement
Neville Wylie

between 1914 and 1918, frequently acting as a clearing house for the work of other voluntary agencies that sought to care for the needs of their servicemen abroad. 5 The Red Cross’s involvement in the lives of POWs was also reflected in the work of the ‘Central Agency’, responsible for tracing the whereabouts of prisoners and communicating this information to the belligerent governments, and expressly acknowledged in the first POW Convention, signed in July 1929, which recognised the ‘humanitarian activities’ of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). 6

in The Red Cross Movement
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Results and reactions
Samantha Newbery

the British government, the High Commission and non-governmental organisations. The International Committee of the Red Cross and Amnesty International investigated the treatment of detainees. The results of these and the government’s own inquiries will be assessed. Impact of the ‘five techniques’ on intelligence and security When the histories of the ‘five techniques’ were

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
Leslie C. Green

wounded or sick’. 72 1 Schindler and Toman, 365. For earlier instances of efforts to protect the wounded and sick see Green, Essays , ch. 6; Boissier, History of the International Committee of the Red Cross , vol. I, From Solferino to Tsushima , 1985 , Part II, ch. 1

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Silvia Salvatici

aid to soldiers and he followed up on his plan immediately afterwards. Humanitarianism – in the version that became accepted over time, and which has influenced one part of its studies – ended up being represented simply as the ‘good creature’ that came to life out of the horrors of war. Historiography has now effectively called into question the trend of overlapping the foundation of the Red Cross and the origins of humanitarianism, 2 but the birth in Geneva of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) definitely marked a turning point. It led

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989