This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the
world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva,
Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates
the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its
kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of
humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The
book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the
International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red
Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies
(both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with
the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross
and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War.
The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and
those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected
humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers
from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a
place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars
interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested
the Faculty of Arts, Cultures and Education at the University of Hull for supporting further research in Geneva. The research for this chapter is in preparation for a monograph on the history of the British Red Cross, under contract with Bloomsbury. Thank you to the wonderful archivists at the British Red Cross, Bodleian Libraries, and the InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent Societies, and for conversations with Melanie Oppenheimer, which have enhanced my research. Thanks also to the Sir Philip Reckitt Educational Trust and the University of
18 See the InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent Societies, “Humanitarian Diplomacy,” accessed December 26, 2013. www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/humanitarian-diplomacy/humanitarian-diplomacy-policy/ .
19 Ray Murphy and Mohamed M. El Zeidy, “Prisoners of War: A Comparative Study of the Principles of International Humanitarian Law and the Islamic Law of War,” Internationa l Criminal Law Review , 9 :4 (2009), 623–649; and Ben Clark, “Contemporary Legal Doctrine on Proportionality in Armed Conflicts: A Select Review,” Journal of
University Press, 2006), 188.
3 Claude E. Welch, Jr, “Introduction,” in NGOs and Human Rights: Promise and Performance , ed. Claude E. Welch (Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2001), 1–24, 4–7.
4 George Ulrich, “Framework for the Analysis of Human Rights Diplomacy,” in Human Rights Diplomacy: Contemporary Perspectives , ed. Michael O’Flaherty, Kedzia Zdislaw, Amerie Muller, and George Ulrich (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2011), 19–49, 25–28.
5 See the InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent Societies
and POWRA. For the BRCS’s tendency to ignore him, much to the FRD’s irritation, see AICRC, D EUR GB1-02, Miss S. J. Warner (FRD, JWO) to Lord Clarendon (POW Department, JWO), 26 February 1941.
55 D. A. Reid and P. F. Gilbo , Beyond Conflict: The InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent Societies, 1919–1994 ( Geneva : IFRC , 1997 ), pp. 120 – 1 .
56 See AICRC, 0 CMS A-001, Joint Relief Commission of the International Red Cross, meeting of October 16 1941.
57 AICRC, G3/43, Carton 200, C. J. Burckhardt (ICRC) to M. Huber (ICRC), 20
Neville Wylie, Melanie Oppenheimer, and James Crossland
Indonesian Red Cross – Palang Merah Indonesia – to bring aid and assistance to those communities affected by the most recent natural disaster to hit the country, the Krakatoa eruption and tsunami that struck Sunda Strait on 22 December 2018. That these terrible events are not the only crises demanding the Red Cross’s attention is clear from the website of the InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent (IFRC), which gives prominence to the work carried out for the inhabitants of Sulawesi and Lombok, still rocked by aftershocks from the earthquake, tsunami
Arrival of international aid, March–April 1958
The Government of Pakistan (GOP), facing
criticism for unacceptably high mortality in EP, and already anxious about the
success of the Communists in the 1954 provincial legislative elections, made an effort
to relieve the epidemics. 22 In
early April it turned to the InternationalFederationoftheRedCrossandRedCrescent Societies and the WHO