accidents. UK The UK has been a member of the ICAO since the organisation was founded in 1947. 92 The International Maritime Organization The IMO was founded in 1958 on the basis of the
Almost everything you consume, from your weekly supermarket trip to the presents you order online, arrives by cargo ship. Shipping is the engine of the world economy, transporting eleven billion tonnes of goods each year. Despite the clear environmental crisis, shipping emissions have doubled since 1990 to more than one billion tonnes of CO2 – more than aviation, more than all of Germany, or even France, Britain, and Italy combined. As the shipping industry is forecast to grow threefold by 2050, full decarbonisation is urgent to limit catastrophic climate change. To understand whether there are any realistic alternatives to the polluting status quo of the container shipping industry, in 2020, Christiaan De Beukelaer spent 150 days as part of a sailing crew aboard the Avontuur, a century-old two-masted schooner fitted for cargo. This book recounts both this personal odyssey and the journey the shipping industry is embarking on to cut its carbon emissions. It shows that the Avontuur’s mission remains as crucial as ever: the shipping industry needs to cut its use of fossil fuels as soon as possible. Otherwise, we will face excessive global warming and the dire outcomes that will bring. The book explores our path to an uncertain future. It argues that shipping symbolises the kind of economy we’ve built: a gargantuan global machine that delivers the goods at an enormous environmental cost. Merely eliminating carbon emissions or improving efficiency won’t solve the underlying issue. If we can’t make shipping truly sustainable, we can’t solve the climate crisis.
and Global Ocean Governance , The IMLI Treatise on Global Ocean Governance , Vol. III ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2018 ); A. Chircop , ‘ The International Maritime Organization ’, in D. R. Rothwell , A. G. Oude Elferink , K. N. Scott and T. Stephens (eds
The decline in marine biodiversity and the reasons for it were outlined at the beginning of chapter fifteen. This chapter is concerned with analysing, and assessing the effectiveness of, the large number of treaties and other measures adopted by the international community designed to conserve marine biodiversity. Some of these instruments focus on protecting habitats or conserving particular species, while others seek to do both by taking a more holistic approach. Among the latter examined in this chapter are the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (including the mining code for the Area being elaborated by the International Seabed Authority), the Convention on Biological Diversity and regional marine environmental treaties. The chapter also looks at the establishment of marine protected areas; other area-based measures, such as the International Maritime Organization’s particularly sensitive sea areas; and the ongoing UN negotiations to develop a legally binding instrument to conserve biodiversity (including marine genetic resources) in areas beyond national jurisdiction. The remainder of the chapter considers treaties to protect habitats (focusing on the Ramsar Wetlands Convention and the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)’s World Heritage Convention) and to conserve species, especially those concerned with migratory species, cetaceans, sharks and seabirds. The chapter concludes that while there have been some successes, international law has so far failed to conserve marine biodiversity adequately.
ECOSOC (Article 63 UN Charter). Such specialised agencies include the WHO, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) (see also Chapter XIV ). Figure 3 Basic UN
romanticised. 8 Regardless of the progress made in locating women on and around the historical seas, locating women on the contemporary seas is still a challenge. As mentioned in the introduction, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates that only 2 per cent of seafarers are female. That number, easily available on the IMO website, restated on the International Transport Worker’s Federation
focus on the challenge we face in changing the means of propulsion of maritime trade, away from polluting fossil fuels to zero-emission technologies and fuels. While most of the industry and the International Maritime Organization (IMO), its regulatory body, focus on those alternative fuels, my focus here is on the potential of sail – arguably the zero-emission technology par excellence – in maintaining global supply chains in our globalised economy, while ensuring that shipping doesn’t wreck the planet. History is
by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and defaulting on charges, including port fees. Port authorities had subsequently moved the cargo of ammonium nitrate from the vessel to a port warehouse. L. Khalili, ‘Behind the Beirut explosion lies the lawless world of international shipping’, Guardian (8 August 2020). 2 Coined by Charles Tilly in works he began in the 1970s, the concept focuses on social movements and extends to include strikes, civil wars, revolutions and
Automatic Identification System (AIS) created by the International Maritime Organization, and even commercial satellites which can collect radiofrequency signals. With the rise of commercial Earth observation constellations, we are seeing much higher revisit rates with less exquisite architecture, which is allowing for an explosion of usable MDA data points. As well, many of the satellites being launched as part of the smallsat revolution are providing Earth observation capabilities that could be used to improve MDA. Space
). This time-honoured piratical tradition has not completely disappeared. The London-based International Maritime Bureau identified eight attacks on merchant ships in the Caribbean Sea in the first three months of 2003 (International Maritime Organization, 2004 ). The history of plantation slavery has cast a long shadow of uncontrolled privatisation in the region. There were few regulations to inhibit this