Theories, concepts and new perspectives

Bringing together leading authorities on Irish women and migration, this book offers a significant reassessment of the place of women in the Irish diaspora. It demonstrates the important role played by women in the construction of Irish diasporic identities, comparing Irish women's experience in Britain, Canada , New Zealand and the United States. The book considers how the Catholic Church could be a focal point for women's Irish identity in Britain. It examines how members of the Ladies' Orange Benevolent Association (LOBA) maintained a sense of Irish Protestant identity, focused on their associational life in female Orange lodges. The book offers a lens on Irish society, and on countries where they settled, and considerable scope for comparative analysis of the impact of different cultures and societies on women's lives. It reviews key debates in Transnational Studies (TS) and Diaspora Studies (DS) before discussing the particular contribution of DS in framing 1990s study of migrant and non-migrant Irish women. Feminist and queer theory scholarship in Irish DS has begun to address the gender and sexual politics of diaspora by attending to the dynamics of boundary expansion, queering and dissolution. The book suggests that religion can be both a 'bright' and a 'blurry' boundary, while examining how religious identities intersect with ethnicity and gender. It also includes the significance of the categories of gender and generation, and their intersection with ethnicity in the context of the official London St Patrick's Day Festival.

Societies, cultures and ideologies

Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas.

Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals.

These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.

The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson

5 Emigrants and exiles: the political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s David T. Gleeson In February 1995, President Mary Robinson gave an address to a joint session of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) titled ‘Cherishing the Diaspora’, explaining in more detail the promise in her inaugural speech to ‘represent’ the ‘over 70 million people of this globe who claim Irish descent’.1 Irish emigration had long been in the consciousness of the Irish people, but it seemed to many that the story had ended at the water’s edge. Quoting poet Eavan Boland

in British and Irish diasporas
Exile, adjustment and experience, 1691–1745
Éamonn Ó Ciardha

and irish diasporas The ‘Fighting Irish’: history and memory In the centuries after the Treaty of Limerick, Irish soldiers, the major focus of this chapter, manned, staffed and led in armies across the entire continent from Lisbon to Moscow, flitting between kingdoms, empires and republics, cultures, ideologies, languages and religions. Like other recruits, they joined foreign armies for many reasons, some ideological and political, others practical and professional. Irishmen fled confessional, cultural and political persecution; escaped famine, economic stagnation

in British and Irish diasporas
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Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives
D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman

M&H 00_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:11 Page 1 INTRODUCTION Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman Popular usage of the term ‘Irish diaspora’ has grown in parallel with the proliferation of academic studies that apply the term to any number of migrant or ethnic groups.1 In an Irish context, during the 1990s President Mary Robinson was at the forefront of public discussion in which the ‘Irish abroad’ became the ‘Irish diaspora’. Robinson’s conception of an Irish diaspora embraced a diverse

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Charlotte Wildman

Greene, Ronald Knox and Edith Sitwell all became Roman Catholics and T. S. Eliot and C. S. Lewis became Anglo-Catholics. Although the spiritual experience and religious identity of these Catholic converts has attracted scholarly attention,2 historians of twentieth-century Britain, including those writing about the Irish diaspora,3 have largely neglected the role of popular or working-class Catholicism except in relation to sectarianism.4 However, recent debates regarding secularisation, led by Callum Brown’s work that argues Britain did not become a secular country

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Contexts and comparisons
Bronwen Walter

take many directions. Three will be attempted here, each drawing on case studies. The first is an exploration of intersections between Irish women and members of other diasporic groups in Britain, examining similarities and differences in their lives. The second compares Irish women’s experiences of different destinations within the British Empire and its Commonwealth successor.2 Finally parallels are drawn with a diaspora outside M&H 07_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:19 Page 134 134 Women and Irish diaspora identities the English-speaking world where social and

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Why they matter
Mary E. Daly

seen as an attempt to M&H 01_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:13 Page 18 18 Women and Irish diaspora identities provide a more positive alternative version. Maguire set out to examine how the Irish emigrants were faring in America, given the conflicting reports that were reaching Ireland; whether Irish-Catholic emigrants were abandoning religious practice, and how the Irish in America regarded the British government. Like many of his successors, he was concerned about the moral and physical dangers associated with city life, especially for young women, and with the

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Mary J. Hickman

4147 Inglis–Are the Irish different_BB_Layout 1 29/07/2014 09:26 Page 133 13 Thinking about Ireland and the Irish diaspora Mary J. Hickman Emigration has been a defining feature of Irish history and is a key motif of the current social and economic crisis. And yet is relatively understudied in Ireland. The Great Famine has had enormous attention, in terms of its impact both in Ireland and on the massive emigrations that followed. But the impact of the two major phases of emigration in the twentieth century – the 1950s and 1980s – have been less integrated into

in Are the Irish different?
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British and Irish diasporas: societies, cultures and ideologies
Donald M. MacRaild, Tanja Bueltmann and J.C.D. Clark

Introduction: British and Irish diasporas: societies, cultures and ideologies Donald M. MacRaild, Tanja Bueltmann and J.C.D. Clark Migrations, trade, settlement, and corresponding flows of ideas, beliefs and cultures, have been shaping human societies since the earliest times.1 In the period from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries, a globalising world of ‘thickening connections across national boundaries’2 framed the growing British sphere of influence. The layers of that influence were many and varied, and intertwined the islands’ peoples, whose

in British and Irish diasporas