This book is unique in adopting a family history approach to Irish migration in nineteenth century Britain. Historians of the Irish in Britain have almost totally ignored the family dimension, but this study shows that the family was central to Irish peoples’ lives and experiences. It was the major factor influencing the life choices and identity of the migrants and their descendants. The book documents for the first time a representative sample of Irish immigrant families and uses the techniques of family and digital history to explore their long-term fate. To do this it examines the Irish in Stafford in the West Midlands, a town that was a microcosm of the broader Irish experience in England. Central to the book is a unique body of evidence about the lives of ordinary families. They were united by their Irish ethnicity and by living in the same town, but there the similarity ended. In the long term they diverged in different directions. Many families integrated into the local population, but others ultimately moved away whilst some simply died out. The case studies explore the reasons why the fate of these families proved to be so varied. The book reveals a fascinating picture of family life and gender relations in nineteenth-century England. Its provocative conclusions will stimulate debate amongst scholars of Irish history, genealogists, historians of the family and social historians generally. The book also offers some valuable historical parallels to the lives of contemporary immigrant families in Britain.
Migration is one of the key issues in Ireland today. This book provides a new and original approach to understanding contemporary Irish migration and immigration, showing that they are processes that need to be understood together. It focuses on four key themes (work, social connections, culture and belonging) that are common to the experiences of immigrants, emigrants and internal migrants. The Gathering was an Irish government initiative held during 2013, bringing together festivals, concerts, seminars, family reunions under one convenient label, using it as a marketing campaign to encourage members of the Irish diaspora to visit Ireland. The 'Currents of Migration' map, together with the nuances of Ravenstein's discussion of migration, offer us a useful way to think about how we might map migration to and from Ireland. The emphasis on a close relationship between migration decisions and work has resulted in a wide range of research on the topic. The book describes social connections: on the ways in which we create, maintain and extend their social connections through the experience of migration. Migrants change the cultural structures and productions of particular places, and these changes may be welcomed to an extent, particularly in aspiring or already global cities. The temptations and complications of belonging become even more evident in association with migration. The book concludes by advocating for a place-based approach to migration, showing how this focus on Ireland as a specific place adds to our more general knowledge about migration as a process and as a lived experience.
This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.
part of their imagined local worlds in Australia. Our argument has been
that the ethnic diversity of the nineteenth-century British and Irishmigration stream to Australia added hitherto under-regarded cultural complexity
to the hegemonic white presence on that continent. On the one hand, most
postcolonial analyses of empire have been written ‘from the
margins’, privileging indigenous experience and the complex and
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek, and Justyna Salamońska
the extent to which Ireland became a jumping-off point for visiting new
places in Europe and beyond. Arguably, the Irishmigration experience
introduced many Polish migrants to a new world of mobility and travel
as they began to discover new countries and destinations.
In addition to physical movement, new information and communication technologies were of particular importance in maintaining transnational contacts. Our participants used a wide range of new technologies
including mobile phones and web-based applications such as Skype and
social networking sites to
unprecedented levels of Irishmigration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established
represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church
with Scotland’s emerging civil society. The depth of their commitment and
the unrivalled emotional authority that they wielded secured for the church
an unprecedented influence over a broader laity, the all too often nameless
folk who made up the loose body of the church. Some scholars, such as Mary
Peckham Magray, recognise this and credit women religious as being the
shapers and transformers of
in addition the bardic poets of this era who did so much to stamp the exilic motif upon the
Irish emigrant experience. Kerby Miller’s classic study, Emigrants and Exiles ,
emphasizes the significance of this early modern conditioning to later representations of
transatlantic Irishmigrations. 9
Return migration – or ‘coming and going’ – in the
seventeenth century was perhaps most likely among those who constituted the most numerically
significant migration flow into Ireland, that is, British migrants who crossed
history, to the benefit of both,
and it needs to be adopted elsewhere to provide comparative evidence.
It is, however, important to generalise from the particular. What does all
this detailed evidence suggest generally about these families, and what
are the implications for historical studies of both Irishmigration and the
family more generally?
300 Divergent paths
Table 11.1 Family fate by occupational group (%)
Ent. and Total
Manchester’s mixed-genre anthologies and short-story collections
anthology (2002)). What it does not include is any close discussion of
the single-authored poetry collections to come out of city during this
period since poetry is dealt with by Corinne Fowler in Chapter 2.
The final part of the chapter presents the Manchester Irish Writers’
Group (founded in 1995) as a case study of a writers’ collective
operating in the city, and samples their poems and short stories to
reflect upon all that is unique in the Irishmigration story. Discussion is
structured around the theme of temporality with a particular focus on
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence
places the idea firmly in a continuum of confident, anti-modern
Catholic thought which began in the 1860s, reached its first peak
during the cultural revival period towards the end of the nineteenth
century, and its second in the middle decades of the twentieth.7 This,
as we shall see, substantially misdates the emergence of the idea.
A merging of Irishmigration and religious history therefore
demands a more detailed and focused treatment of what was a longrunning and widespread facet of the clerical discussion of emigration. While Sheridan Gilley’s pioneering work in