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Sinn Féin, 1926–70
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To date, only two studies deal with Sinn Féin's history from 1905 to 2005: Brian Feeney's Sinn Féin: A Hundred Turbulent Years (2002) and Kevin Rafter's Sinn Féin 1905–2005: In the Shadow of Gunmen (2005). However, they only dedicate small sections to the era of the fourth Sinn Féin. Nevertheless, Sinn Féin did not disappear altogether from the political scene after 1926. It was undoubtedly overshadowed by more powerful political forces, but although it operated in very restricted circumstances over long periods of time, its final objectives, the end of partition and the establishment of the Republic proclaimed in 1916, always found sufficiently passionate advocates to keep it alive throughout those years. In 1948, during the first convention held since the Second World War, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) decided to resurrect the moribund Sinn Féin, with a limited role, that of assisting the IRA. Sinn Féin therefore became the 'political wing' of the movement. Parallel to these developments, Sinn Féin kept an active role in Northern Ireland, mainly through the Republican Clubs, created in order to circumvent the ban on the party. Sinn Féin's involvement in the Civil Rights movement remains a source of speculation. The history of the fourth Sinn Féin came to an end with the 1970 split between Officials and Provisionals, opening a new page in the fortunes of a party which had substantially morphed during its forty-five years of existence.

Agnès Maillot

1955–62 period, is available on the Border Campaign website, laochrauladh.blogspot.fr, which contains reproductions of articles, manifestos and newspaper clippings, as well as the Handbook for Volunteers of the Irish Republican Army: Notes on Guerrilla Warfare, issued by General Headquarters but written by Seán Cronin in 1956. The blog also contains a number of links to archival video material on the Border Campaign and the main events throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. The Northern Ireland Labour Party fought the election in the four Belfast constituencies. Ó

in In the shadow of history
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Agnès Maillot

When Seán Mac Stiofáin and his supporters walked out of the Irish Republican Army convention in 1969 and formed the Provisional Army Council, the path that Sinn Féin would follow seemed already mapped out: the divisions that were tearing the army apart were inevitably reflected within the party. Abstentionism was the means of identification of Republicans to their ideology. It became the depository of a number of aspirations, the catalyst of discontent for those who decided to remain faithful to principles and refused any attempted change. The issue of abstentionism revealed a flaw in the party's ideological and strategic make-up: that of its composite nature. Against all odds, whether favourable or unfavourable, Sinn Féin continues to demand the end of partition, disregarding the circumstances and the desirability of such a demand.

in In the shadow of history
Abstract only
Agnès Maillot

Sinn Féin from 1926 becomes a footnote in most history books, which mention its rapid decline from 1926 onwards and its revival in the early 1950s, being eclipsed first and foremost by Fianna Fáil, but also, by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Sinn Féin did not disappear altogether from the political scene after 1926. It was undoubtedly overshadowed by more powerful political forces, but although it operated in very restricted circumstances over long periods of time, its final objectives, the end of partition and the establishment of the Republic proclaimed in 1916, always found sufficiently passionate advocates to keep it alive throughout those years. In 1948, during the first convention held since the Second World War, the IRA decided to resurrect the moribund Sinn Féin, with a limited role, that of assisting the IRA.

in In the shadow of history
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Rethinking the Republic
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While there have been many books written about the Irish Republican Army (IRA) since 1916, comparatively little attention has been paid to the organisation during the 1960s, despite the fact that the internal divisions culminating in the 1969 split are often seen as key to the conflict which erupted that year. This book rederesses that vacuum and, through an exhaustive survey of internal and official sources, as well as interviews with key IRA members, provides an insight into radical Republican politics. The book looks at the root of the divisions that centred on conflicting attitudes within the IRA on armed struggle, electoral participation and socialism. It argues that while the IRA did not consciously plan the northern ‘Troubles’, the internal debate of the 1960s had implications for what happened in 1969. The book is also of interest as a study of the internal dynamics of a revolutionary movement that has resonance with similar movements in other countries.

The Other side
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Conducting an analysis of some of the most candid interview materials ever gathered from former Irish Republican Army (IRA) members and loyalists in Northern Ireland, this book demonstrates through a psychoanalysis of slips of the tongue, jokes, rationalisations and contradictions that it is the unconscious dynamics of the conflict — that is, the pleasure to be found in suffering, failure, domination, submission and ignorance, and in rivalry over jouissance — that lead to the reproduction of polarisation between the Catholic and Protestant communities. As a result, it contends that traditional approaches to conflict resolution which overlook the unconscious are doomed and argues that a Lacanian psychoanalytic understanding of socio-ideological fantasy has great potential for informing the way we understand and study all inter-religious and ethnic conflicts and, as such, deserves to be further developed in conflict-management processes. Whether readers find themselves agreeing with the arguments in the book or not, they are sure to find it a change from both traditional approaches to conflict resolution and the existing mainly conservative analyses of the Northern Ireland conflict.

Boiling volcano?
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Divisions between north and south Ireland were prevalent since the 1920s. Yet, until the 1970s, nobody in public life in the Republic of Ireland argued that partition was justified. This book examines in detail the impact of the Northern Irish Troubles on southern Irish society during the period 1968-79. It begins with the aftermath of the civil rights march in Derry in October 1968 and traces the reaction to the events until the autumn of 1972. The impact of August 1969, the aftermath of internment and the response to Bloody Sunday are examined. The book looks at violence south of the border, particularly bombings and shootings and their human cost, and examines state security, censorship and the popular protests associated with these issues. A general outlook at the changing attitudes to refugees and northern nationalists is provided before describing the impact of the conflict on southern Protestants. The controversies concerning the Irish Republican Army and their activities are highlighted. The book looks at the question of revisionism and how debates about history were played out in academia as well as at a popular level. A variety of social and cultural responses to the conflict are examined, including attitudes to Britain and northern Unionists. For many southerners, Ulster was practically a foreign country and Northern Ireland did not seem very Irish. By 1979, the prospect of an end to the conflict seemed dim.

The militant Irish republican movement in America, 1923–45
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This book examines the militant Irish republican movement in the United States from the final months of the Irish Civil War through to the Second World War. The narrative, crafted to appeal to both an academic and general audience, carefully and creatively intertwines the personalities, events and policies that shaped the militant republican movement in the US during this period and shows the evolution of its deep transnational nature. Most importantly, through a bottom-up historical analysis that incorporates an examination of more than eighty archival collections in the US, Ireland and Britain, the work presents for the first time an account of the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army (IRA) veterans who emigrated to the United States after the Irish Civil War. Upon their settlement in Irish-American communities, these republicans directly influenced and guided the US-based militant republican organisation, Clan na Gael, transformed the overall dynamics of militant Irish republicanism in America and provided leadership and co-ordination for an IRA bombing campaign. The inclusion of these IRA veterans in the narrative creates a fresh and revised interpretation of the militant Irish republican activism that occurred in the US in the immediate decades after the Irish revolutionary period.

Espionage, terrorism and diplomacy

This book is an in-depth examination of the relations between Ireland and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) between the end of the Second World War and the fall of the Berlin Wall. It explores political, diplomatic, economic, media and cultural issues. Before embarking upon the journey in the archives of the Stasi, it is necessary to give a picture on the relations between Ireland and the GDR to set the scene. The first part of the book is an analysis of the political, economic and cultural links between the two countries, and also perceptions and portrayals by the media. The second part is devoted to the long and extraordinary process of establishing diplomatic relations between Ireland and the GDR. It focuses on intelligence activities. The activities include: reading and listening about Ireland and Northern Ireland; spying on Ireland; and recording information on Northern Ireland in the central databank for persons. They also include: watching the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the Irish National Liberation Army and British Army of the Rhine. Thus, documents and findings are presented in a rather thematic way, except the history of Irish terrorist activities in West Germany. This approach has the advantage of showing how an intelligence service actually operates.

Indo-Irish radical connections, 1919–64
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The affinities between Ireland and India have been much commented upon in the nineteenth-century context. Modes of governance, tenancy laws, famines, migrations, policing and military matters have all received attention. This book offers a fresh perspective on the history of the end of Empire, with the Irish and Indian independence movements as its focus, examining the relationship between nationalists between the 1919s and the late 1940s. It details how each country's nationalist agitators engaged with each other and exchanged ideas. Using previously unpublished sources from the Indian Political Intelligence collection, the book chronicles the rise and fall of movements such as the Indian-Irish Independence League and the League Against Imperialism. The histories of these movements have, until now, remained deeply hidden in the archives. The study presented throws light on the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Indian National Army (INA). It shows that it is feasible that British intelligence agents established the Friends of India Society (FOIS) in Dublin. The study also illuminates the role of figures and organisations previously considered somewhat obscure in both Indian and Irish history. Individuals like V. J. Patel, Brajesh Singh, Mollie Woods, Philip Vickery, Shapurji Saklatvala, and Charlotte Despard emerge as significant figures in their respective movements. The book also highlights opaque aspects of the careers of popular figures including Subhas Chandra Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru, Eamon de Valera and Maud Gonne McBride at points when their paths crossed.