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Mícheál Ó hAodha

01 Insubordinate Irish 001-008 1 13/6/11 14:13 Page 1 Irish Travellers and the nineteenth century ‘Others’ Irish Travellers are a minority who have lived on the margins of mainstream Irish society for many centuries. Many contemporary sources refer to the Irish Travellers as an ethnic group, and they are recognised as such in Britain, although not in Ireland. It is estimated that there are at least 36,000 Travellers living in the Republic of Ireland with a further 6,000 in Northern Ireland. There are also significant communities of Travellers who claim

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Mícheál Ó hAodha

03 Insubordinate Irish 026-035 3 13/6/11 14:19 Page 26 Irish Travellers and the bardic tradition The initial Gypsilorist interest in Irish Travellers/tinkers was a shortlived phenomenon and it faded away after a few years. More than three decades passed before the subject was revived again as a source of interest. Once again, philology and its relation with cultural categorisation would prove the catalyst. It was not until the late 1930s that an interest in Traveller culture resurfaced once more and on this occasion it was the Traveller language known as

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Úna Crowley and Rob Kitchin

8 Academic ‘truth’ and the perpetuation of negative attitudes and intolerance towards Irish Travellers in contemporary Ireland Úna Crowley and Rob Kitchin In 2014, fifty-one years after the publication of the seminal Report of the Commission on Itinerancy, Irish Travellers remain one the most marginalised groups in Irish society. This is despite the fact that vast resources and energy have been introduced into programmes, campaigns and partnerships aimed at improving relations between Travellers and sedentary society. Whether recognised as an ethnic group, as in

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
Travellers in the text

This book traces a number of common themes relating to the representation of Irish Travellers in Irish popular tradition and how these themes have impacted on Ireland's collective imagination. A particular focus of the book is on the exploration of the Traveller as ‘Other’, an ‘Other’ who is perceived as both inside and outside Ireland's collective ideation. Frequently constructed as a group whose cultural tenets are in a dichotomous opposition to those of the ‘settled’ community, the book demonstrates the ambivalence and complexity of the Irish Traveller ‘Other’ in the context of a European postcolonial country. Not only have the construction and representation of Travellers always been less stable and ‘fixed’ than previously supposed, these images have been acted upon and changed by both the Traveller and non-Traveller communities as the situation has demanded. Drawing primarily on little-explored Irish language sources, the book demonstrates the fluidity of what is often assumed as reified or ‘fixed’. As evidenced in Irish-language cultural sources, the image of the Traveller is inextricably linked with the very concept of Irish identity itself. They are simultaneously the same and ‘Other’, and frequently function as exemplars of the hegemony of native Irish culture as set against colonial traditions.

Mícheál Ó hAodha

Butler Yeats was also a member of the Society for a short period, a society whose members sought to record folk tales, songs, examples of dialect and genealogical information from Romany Gypsy families in Britain and other parts of Europe. Outside of Britain, their primary European focus was on Gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe, partly because a number of their more prolific contributors/correspondents spent 02 Insubordinate Irish 009-025 10 13/6/11 14:15 Page 10 ‘Insubordinate Irish’: Travellers in the text periods of time working and living in the Balkans

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Contested terrains
Mícheál Ó hAodha

is that special point of tension, the margin which is simultaneously the border and the crossing point. Viewed from the perspectives of scholars such as Bakhtin and Bhabha this is the place where textuality and discourse are in a constant state of tension between that which exists inside and outside the text. It is a text 07 Insubordinate Irish 091-102 92 13/6/11 14:27 Page 92 ‘Insubordinate Irish’: Travellers in the text which oscillates between that which is apparently stable and one which is hybrid, restless and disruptive and where it cannot be firmly

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Irish Travellers and the Questionnaire
Mícheál Ó hAodha

05 Insubordinate Irish 050-079 5 13/6/11 14:23 Page 50 Mapping ‘difference’: Irish Travellers and the Questionnaire I have briefly traced the development of the Irish ‘Othering’ tradition as encompassed in a reiterative and reductionist discourse because Ireland’s history of colonisation has meant that the ‘official’ version of the Irish people (including Irish Travellers) and Irish history is, it can be argued, itself a form of ‘Othering’. Healy’s statement regarding the ‘manufactured’ or mediated nature of much of the historical record can be seen to be

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Abstract only
Policy and practice in Northern Ireland
Jennifer Hamilton, Fiona Bloomer, and Michael Potter

­discrimination is p ­ rohibited. Within both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, Irish Travellers are considered to be a distinct group, set apart from the ‘settled’ population (Acton, 1996: 37; Helleiner, 2000: 29; Crowley and Kitchin, Chapter 8 below). Indeed the Northern Ireland Racial Equality Strategy (OFMDFM, 2005) describes Irish Travellers as an  indigenous  minority ethnic group. The essential difference between the approaches in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland t­herefore is that the former jurisdiction sees Travellers in terms of a minority

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
Ebun Joseph

2 Migration, whiteness and Irish racism Despite the ways whiteness has historically been invoked in the (re)positioning of the Irish on both sides of the Atlantic, the discourse on  race in Ireland does not sufficiently focus on whiteness or colourbased racism. Rather, there is ongoing debate on the significance of skin colour, particularly as the racialisation of the Irish and the Irish Travellers is perpetrated from white bodies to white bodies. In order to introduce a CRT perspective to how we look at and talk about racism in Ireland, this chapter examines

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
The narrative within the Irish imaginary
Mícheál Ó hAodha

explanations of their origins are likely to have influenced the official discourse of modern public policy makers and state policy vis-à-vis Traveller settlement and possible assimilation. In this chapter I show how the derogatory status associated with the term ‘Traveller’ but more especially ‘Tinker’ as outlined in the folklore tradition has also influenced in a negative way the culture of Travellers themselves. The pseudo-religious nature of these folktales which 08 Insubordinate Irish 103-151 25/7/11 12:42 Page 104 104 ‘Insubordinate Irish’: Travellers in the text

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’