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Bryan Fanning

18 The future of Irish identity James Joyce had Leopold Bloom, his fictional Irish Jew protagonist of Ulysses, define a nation as the same people living in the same place. Thousands of pages have been written since by academics on the ambivalent place of Leopold Bloom within the Irish nation of 1904 when the novel was set. Joseph Stalin in 1913, nine years before Ulysses was published, offered the following definition: ‘A nation is a historically constituted, stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, and

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Niall Coll

Irish identity and the future of Catholicism 22 Irish identity and the future of Catholicism Niall Coll It is a truism to say that the Catholic Church came to dominate both the public identity and the personal values of the great majority of the Irish people from the middle of the nineteenth century until recent times. Now, in the wake of the gradual rise of urban, secular Anglo-American cultural norms on the one hand and the clerical abuse crisis on the other, that dominance has been shattered.1 Dermot Keogh has written that the Catholic Church in Ireland now

in Irish Catholic identities
The place of religion
Karin Fischer

32 2 Social upheavals and discourses on Irish identity: the place of religion To understand the contemporary relationship between school and religion in the Republic of Ireland, and the policies and debates that affect it, one must take into account the wider changes at work in Irish society over the past forty years. The aim in this chapter is to offer an overview of these changes, of the place of religion in them and of the fluctuations in the dominant discourse on Irish identity, within the political sphere in particular. Many articles and books published

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
Travellers in the text

This book traces a number of common themes relating to the representation of Irish Travellers in Irish popular tradition and how these themes have impacted on Ireland's collective imagination. A particular focus of the book is on the exploration of the Traveller as ‘Other’, an ‘Other’ who is perceived as both inside and outside Ireland's collective ideation. Frequently constructed as a group whose cultural tenets are in a dichotomous opposition to those of the ‘settled’ community, the book demonstrates the ambivalence and complexity of the Irish Traveller ‘Other’ in the context of a European postcolonial country. Not only have the construction and representation of Travellers always been less stable and ‘fixed’ than previously supposed, these images have been acted upon and changed by both the Traveller and non-Traveller communities as the situation has demanded. Drawing primarily on little-explored Irish language sources, the book demonstrates the fluidity of what is often assumed as reified or ‘fixed’. As evidenced in Irish-language cultural sources, the image of the Traveller is inextricably linked with the very concept of Irish identity itself. They are simultaneously the same and ‘Other’, and frequently function as exemplars of the hegemony of native Irish culture as set against colonial traditions.

Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

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Power, resistance and identity in twenty-first-century Ireland
Series: Irish Society
Editors: Rosie Meade and Fiona Dukelow

This book analyses and critiques Irish society in the early twenty-first century, but seeks to do so by consciously avoiding myth-making and generalisation. It invites readers to revisit and rethink twelve events that span the years 2001-2009. It shows that all of these events reveal crucial intersections of structural power and resistance in contemporary Ireland. The book shows how the events carry traces of both social structure and human agency. They were shaped by overarching political, economic, social and cultural currents; but they were also responses to proposals, protests, advocacy and demands that have been articulated by a broad spectrum of social actors. The book also explores how power works ideologically and through policy instruments to support dominant models of capital accumulation. Identities are constructed at the interface between public policy, collective commitments and individual biographies. They mobilise both power and resistance, as they move beyond the realm of the personal and become focal points for debates about rights, responsibilities, resources and even the borders of the nation itself. The book suggests that conceptions of Irish identity and citizenship are being redrawn in more positive ways. Family is the cornerstone, the natural, primary and fundamental unit group of society. Marriage is the religious, cultural, commercial, and political institution that defines and embeds its values. The book presents a 2004 High Court case taken by Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan for legal recognition of their marriage as a same-sex couple, which had taken place a year previously in Canada.

Diverse voices

This book focuses on the drama and poetry published since 1990. It also reflects upon related forms of creative work in this period, including film and the visual and performing arts. The book discusses some of the most topical issues which have emerged in Irish theatre since 1990. It traces the significance of the home in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke. The book also focuses on the reconfigurations of identity, and the complex intersections of nationality, gender and race in contemporary Ireland. It shows how Roddy Doyle's return to the repressed gives articulation to those left behind by globalisation. The book then examines the ways in which post-Agreement Northern fiction negotiates its bitter legacies. It also examines how the activity of creating art in a time of violence brings about an anxiety regarding the artist's role, and how it calls into question the ability to re-present atrocity. The book further explores the consideration of politics and ethics in Irish drama since 1990. It talks about the swirling abundance of themes and trends in contemporary Irish fiction and autobiography. The book shows that writing in the Irish Republic and in the North has begun to accommodate an increasing diversity of voices which address themselves not only to issues preoccupying their local audiences, but also to wider geopolitical concerns.

Bryan Fanning

9 Liberalism and The Bell Throughout the 1940s and into the 1950s, The Bell, Kelly Mathews concludes in The Bell Magazine and the Representation of Irish Identity, ‘looked unflinchingly on the realities of contemporary Irish life, whether they corresponded with the official version of “the ideal Ireland” or revealed its cruelties and inconsistencies’.1 The Bell was hardly unflinching throughout its fourteen or so years of existence. It wavered from time to time and shifted somewhat in emphasis under different editors, and there was sometimes a gap between

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Abstract only
Bernadette C. Hayes and Ian McAllister

those with a British identity against those with an Irish identity, or unionists against nationalists, or even those who support the link with Britain against those who wish to see both parts of Ireland reunited. Rather, it is grounded in significant intra- as well as intercommunity differences based not only on differences in ethnic and national identity but also on conflicting views concerning the

in Conflict to peace
Louise Fuller

18 Identity and political fragmentation in independent Ireland, 1923–83 Louise Fuller The centrality of Catholicism to Irish identity in the post-independence era has to be understood against the background of nineteenth and early twentieth century Irish history. The mobilisation of bishops, priests and Catholic laity by Daniel O’Connell from the early nineteenth century led to Catholic emancipation and from that time the Catholic community was increasingly politicised. A chief priority for the bishops throughout the nineteenth century was the securing of

in Irish Catholic identities