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Irish foreign policy in transition
Author: Ben Tonra

This book offers a new way of looking at Irish foreign policy, linking its development with changes in Irish national identity. Many debates within contemporary international relations focus on the relative benefits of taking a traditional interest-based approach to the study of foreign policy as opposed to the more recently developed identity-based approach. This book takes the latter and, instead of looking at Irish foreign policy through the lens of individual, geo-strategic or political interests, is linked to deeper identity changes. As one Minister of Foreign Affairs put it; ‘Irish foreign policy is about much more than self-interest. The elaboration of our foreign policy is also a matter of self-definition—simply put, it is for many of us a statement of the kind of people that we are’. Using this approach, four grand narratives are identified which, it is argued, have served to shape the course of Irish foreign policy and which have, in turn, been impacted by the course of Ireland's international experience. The roots and significance of each of these narratives; Ireland as a European Republic, as a Global Citizen, as an Anglo-American State and as an Irish Nation are then outlined and their significance assessed. The shape of Irish foreign-policy-making structures is then drawn out and the usefulness of this book's approach to Irish foreign policy is then considered in three brief case studies: Ireland's European experience, its neutrality and Irish policy towards the 2003 Iraq War.

Intercultural exchanges and the redefinition of identity in Hugo Hamilton’s Disguise and Hand in the Fire
Carmen Zamorano Llena

Ireland the only country in Europe to experience a decline in population growth in the second half of the nineteenth century (Kuhling and Keohane, 2007: 53). Significantly, Mary Robinson’s speech did not delve into the representation of the Great Irish Famine and its consequences as being caused by the British indifference to its neighbouring island, an argument characteristic of the postcolonial discourse on which the twentieth-century construct of Irish national identity was highly dependent.2 On the contrary, Robinson took the commemoration as an opportunity to show

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
The place of religion
Karin Fischer

children’s and teenagers’ constructions of Irish identity have been struck by the absence or near-absence of religion as an identity marker. Fionnuala Waldron and Susan Pike, who carried out a survey of a sample of children of primary-school age in 2003 and 2004, found that the vast majority continue to associate Irish national identity with a number of cultural markers such as the Irish language or Guinness, while a small minority make a direct link between Irish identity and being born on Irish soil. They also noted the 39 S ociety, identity and religion 39 absence

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
Bryan Fanning

3 Nation-building and exclusion Introduction This chapter examines dominant (and changing) conceptions of Irish national identity. It explores the development of exclusionary conceptions of identity homogeneity linked to nationalism and nation-building from the nineteenth century onwards with reference to the experiences of Protestant, Jewish and Traveller minority communities. Much of this chapter is concerned with the past; first, to demonstrate how, with regard to dominant understandings of ‘Irishness’, the goalposts of imagined community have moved before

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
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Karen Garner

The conclusion evaluates the legacies of the highly personalized fraternal friendships and intensely felt animosities of the Irish, British, and American national leaders and their close foreign policy advisers who either shaped or responded to Ireland’s neutrality policy during the Second World War. It reveals the significant ways that these friendships and enmities influenced wartime and postwar state-to-state diplomacy. It summarizes how Churchill, Roosevelt, and de Valera created the British, American, and Irish national identities that were based on their own sense of personal destiny directing the fate of their nations as well as on their nations’ competing masculine ideologies, and how these national identities also persisted into the postwar period and shaped their nations’ collective memories of the war.

in Friends and enemies
The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson

In 1995 President Mary Robinson of Ireland, in an address to a joint session of the Irish Parliament, argued that the Irish people in Ireland should ‘cherish the diaspora’ abroad. By 2015 the once little-used idea of the Irish diaspora had been incorporated into the Irish Constitution, with its own government minister, with a bespoke diaspora policy. The term ‘diaspora’ seemed to suit because as well as including the descendants of Irish emigrants, it implied an element of compulsion in Irish migration. This idea of Irish emigration as one of exile has a long pedigree going back to the early seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth, images of exiles were reinforced by the political refugees of the 1798 rebellion. Mass migration after 1815, however, complicated this notion of migration as exile. Were all those millions of Irish who left between 1815 and 1995 truly exiles? Did they represent themselves as exiles? Was exile their reality? This chapter uses the concept of diaspora as a way to assess the ways Irish emigration was seen by the Irish who left, their descendants and those they left behind. It does not overlook the Protestant. Ultimately, this chapter will attempt to show how Irishness itself was often defined through the diaspora and the formation of a distinct Irish national identity.

in British and Irish diasporas
Katy Hayward

: Irish identity was framed in the Irish nation, it was based on an historical culture and it defined a distinctive Irish people. Chapter 5 showed that the points of convergence between constitutional and republican nationalism prior to the establishment of the Free State were deliberately built upon in official discourse as a means of legitimising the state in a context of internal and external uncertainty. Hence, the sense of continuity and integrity in Irish national identity is related to the ability of the governing elite to reiterate core signifiers and rudiments

in Irish nationalism and European integration
Visualising a changing city

Delving into a hitherto unexplored aspect of Irish art history, Painting Dublin, 1886–1949 examines the depiction of Dublin by artists from the late-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Artists’ representations of the city have long been markers of civic pride and identity, yet in Ireland, such artworks have been overlooked in favour of the rural and pastoral, falling outside of the dominant disciplinary narratives of nationalism or modernism. Framed by the shift from city of empire to capital of an independent republic, this book chiefly examines artworks by of Walter Frederick Osborne (1857–1903), Rose Mary Barton (1856–1929), Jack Butler Yeats (1871–1957), Harry Aaron Kernoff (1900–74), Estella Frances Solomons (1882–1968), and Flora Hippisley Mitchell (1890–1973), encompassing a variety of urban views and artistic themes. While Dublin is renowned for its representation in literature, this book will demonstrate how the city was also the subject of a range of visual depictions, including those in painting and print. Focusing on the images created by these artists as they navigated the city’s streets, this book offers a vivid visualisation of Dublin and its inhabitants, challenging a reengagement with Ireland’s art history through the prism of the city and urban life.

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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Justin Carville

Landscape’, in Eamon Maher and Eugene O’Brien (eds.), From Prosperity to Austerity: A Socio-​cultural   87 Refracted visions Critique of the Celtic Tiger and Its Aftermath, Manchester: Manchester University of Press, pp. 103–​18. Dalsimer, Adele M. (ed.) (1993) Visualizing Ireland: National Identity and the Pictorial Tradition, London: Faber and Faber. Dalsimer, Adele M. and Vera Krielkamp (1993) ‘Introduction’, in Adele M. Dalsimer (ed.), Visualizing Ireland: National Identity and the Pictorial Tradition, London: Faber and Faber. de Paor, Máire (1993) ‘Irish

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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Thomas Hajkowski

becoming too provincial. Similarly, nationalists in both Wales and Scotland proved to be the harshest critics of the BBC, regarding it as a threat to the national language or culture of Wales or Scotland. The regional BBCs, in their opinion, were poor substitutes for the fully independent broadcasting organizations that Wales and Scotland, as nations, merited. That said, it is perhaps best not to give too much weight to the opinions of Scottish and Welsh nationalists when assessing the BBC’s projection of British (and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish) national

in The BBC and national identity in Britain, 1922–53