This book is the fruit of twenty years’ reflection on Islamic charities, both in practical terms and as a key to understand the crisis in contemporary Islam. On the one hand Islam is undervalued as a global moral and political force whose admirable qualities are exemplified in its strong tradition of charitable giving. On the other hand, it suffers from a crisis of authority that cannot be blamed entirely on the history of colonialism and stigmatization to which Muslims have undoubtedly been subjected – most recently, as a result of the "war on terror". The book consists of seventeen previously published chapters, with a general Introduction and new prefatory material for each chapter. The first nine chapters review the current situation of Islamic charities from many different viewpoints – theological, historical, diplomatic, legal, sociological and ethnographic – with first-hand data from the United States, Britain, Israel–Palestine, Mali and Indonesia. Chapters 10 to 17 expand the coverage to explore the potential for a twenty-first century "Islamic humanism" that would be devised by Muslims in the light of the human sciences and institutionalized throughout the Muslim world. This means addressing contentious topics such as religious toleration and the meaning of jihad. The intended readership includes academics and students at all levels, professionals concerned with aid and development, and all who have an interest in the future of Islam.
This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that
influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the
Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book
provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine
studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity
and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of
quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions
had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the
construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the
configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread
of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and
differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in
Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking
domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global
English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources,
bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various
Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the
secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of
epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.
contrast, individual Islamicreformers
have made their mark for more than a century, such as the circle of
Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida in Egypt, but they did not establish
durable institutions – leaving a gap for the anti-Western Muslim Brotherhood to fill, and a
resulting crisis of authority within Islam. An exception is
Indonesia, a major Muslim-majority nation almost ignored by Cook
rapidly in the early 1930s,
marked by two main tendencies. One was represented by the FEI. But rent
by divisions over tactics, personality, ideology and geography, by 1930
it had split into three sections reflecting the three departments. In
the early 1930s Constantine-born Dr Mohamed-Salah Bendjelloul became the
federation’s most prominent leader. 20 The other was represented by the
theological tradition would break
open what Mohammed Arkoun referred to as ‘la clôture idéologique’ (Arkoun,
cited by Bidar 2004: p. 33) (ideological closure) which has historically blocked
any serious notion of Islamicreform. Of particular significance is the fact that
Bidar’s understanding of modernity is not a post-Enlightenment rationalist one,
which has been the dominant variant in the West. Indeed, Bidar rejects what he
later comes to call ‘primitive modernity’ (Bidar 2012b), which is characterised by
the death of God and the ensuing absurdist ethic of the human
Extremism and the ‘politics of mutual envy’ in Nigeria?
, London .
Latour , V. , 2012 . ‘“Muscular liberalism”: Surviving multiculturalism? A historical and political contextualisation of David Cameron’s Munich speech’, Observatoire de la Société Britannique , 13 ( 2 ), 199–216 .
Loimeier , R. , 2011 . IslamicReform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria . Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL .
Loimeier , R. , 2012 . ‘Boko Haram: The development of a militant religious movement in Nigeria’, Africa Spectrum , 47 ( 2–3 ), 137–155 .
Loimeier , R. , 2017 . IslamicReform in Twentieth
political space as the French state
prepared to celebrate the centennial of its colonial conquest. Yet by
the early 1930s, as Chapter 3 shows, the local
communist movement had recovered from the new line purges and the fierce
repression and made alliances, albeit short-lived, with peasant
movements and with the growing Islamicreform movement.
The expansion of fascism and the Comintern’s Popular
Dutch formally transferred sovereignty on 27 December 1949 following four years of armed struggle and diplomatic negotiations.
2 Russell Jones, ‘Ten conversion myths from Indonesia’, in Nehemia Levztion (ed.), Conversion to Islam (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979), pp. 129–58.
3 Azyumardi Azra, The Origins of IslamicReformism in Southeast Asia (Crows Nest, NSW and Honolulu: Allen & Unwin and University of Hawai’i Press, 2004).
4 The fatwa was issued by Kadhi Maliku’l Adil. Sher Banu A. Latif Khan, ‘Rule behind the Silk Curtain: the Sultanahs of Aceh