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The Position of Women in Post-War Japanese Cinema (Kinema Junpō, 1961)
Alejandra Armendáriz-Hernández and Irene González-López

In contrast to the canonical history of cinema and film theory, often dominated by academic texts and Western and/or male voices, this article presents a casual conversation held in 1961 between four of the most influential women in the post-war Japanese film industry: Kawakita Kashiko,,Yamamoto Kyōko, Tanaka Kinuyo and Takamine Hideko. As they openly discuss their gendered experience in production, promotion, distribution and criticism, their thoughts shed light on the wide range of opportunities available to women in filmmaking, but also on the professional constraints,and concerns which they felt came along with their gender. Their conversation reveals how they measured themselves and their national industry in relation to the West; at times unaware of their pioneer role in world cinema. This piece of self-reflexive criticism contributes to existing research on both womens filmmaking and the industry of Japanese cinema, and invites us to reconsider non-hegemonic film thinking practices and voices.

Film Studies
The Boom of 1960s–70s Erotic Cinema and the Policing of Young Female Subjects in Japanese sukeban Films
Laura Treglia

The purpose of this article is to analyse the ambivalent politics of looking and discourses of gender, class and sexuality in a variety of 1960s–70s Japanese studio-made exploitation films, known as sukeban films. It first contextualises their production within a transnational and domestic shift emphasising sex and violence in film and popular culture. The article then highlights instances where the visual, narrative and discursive articulation of non-conforming femininities flips the gendered power balance, as in the sketches that satirise men’s sexual fetishes for girls. In conclusion, it suggests to understand the filmic construction of young women’s agency, and their bodily and sexual performance, in terms of a recurring modus operandi of Japanese media that ambivalently panders to and co-constitutes youth phenomena.

Film Studies
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Don Fairservice

forms. Something which is not generally understood is that even though these structures lend themselves to considerable stylistic versatility, the conventions limit the possibilities of enriching the content because of the contraints of their form. In his extensively researched and persuasively argued book on Japanese cinema, To the Distant Observer , Noël Burch, comparing approaches to artistic and cultural production in the

in Film editing: history, theory and practice
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Colette Balmain

local, as Chow points out in her insightful analysis of film as ethnography ( 2010a : 148–71 ) utilising Mulvey’s now iconic essay on gender and power in Hollywood cinema, ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’. While the return to the past in Japanese cinema of the 1950s and 1960s functioned as a form of reimagining of national identity outside of the contaminating influence of Western forms, tied up

in Globalgothic
Post-war national identity and the spirit of subaltern vengeance in Ringu and The Ring
Linnie Blake

lovers’ suicide in the face of their social exclusion. Giving up a promising military career and marriage to a General’s daughter for his own forbidden love, Brando thus embodied all the rebellious individualism of his earlier characters, while Japan provided little more than an exotic backdrop against which he could explore what it means to be an American and a man. The process would be echoed in Hollywood’s wholesale appropriation of film plots and characters drawn from Japanese cinema: Kurosawa Akira’s The Seven Samurai (1951) becoming John Sturgis’s The Magnificent

in The wounds of nations
National identity and the spirit of subaltern vengeance in Nakata Hideo’s Ringu and Gore Verbinski’s The Ring
Linnie Blake

rebellious individualism of his earlier characters, whilst Japan provides little more than an exotic backdrop against which he can explore what it means to be a US citizen and a man. The process would, of course, be echoed in Hollywood’s wholesale appropriation of film plots and characters drawn from Japanese cinema. Kurosawa Akira’s The Seven Samurai (1951) would become John Sturgis’s The Magnificent

in Monstrous adaptations
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Valentina Vitali

in property and golf resorts – a move that, in the harsher climate of the 1990s, led Nikkatsu into bankruptcy.2 Relative to the total invisibility of soft-core pornographic films in the historiography of any other national cinema, pink movies and above all roman porunu feature prominently in histories of Japanese cinema. I would argue that such prominence is an indirect but demonstrable effect of the Japanese state’s relation to radical capital from the 1970s through to the end of the millennium – a relation that is evidenced also by the nature of the doken kokka

in Capital and popular cinema
Derek Schilling

-professionals, and where the would-be superiority of Western civilisation is nowhere apparent. Eurocentric assumptions feature similarly in his review of a 1956 survey on Japanese cinema, an industry then known for its love of remakes and traditional genres. While he admits his lack of expertise, Rohmer sees Japanese filmmakers as being at an aesthetic disadvantage. Their culture lacks the Occident’s history of pictorial representation

in Eric Rohmer
Des O’Rawe

he began working as an editor, and then assistant director, to Fumio Kamei, the radical pacifist and communist; and when he co-­founded the Cinema 57 group, with Susumu Hani, who also made several modernist documentaries at this time exploring the relations between art and education (Children Who Draw­/Eo kaku kodomotachi (1955, JP, 16 mm, b&w and col., 38 min.)), and sculpture (Horyuji (1958, JP, b&w, 22 min.)). Cinema 57 dedicated itself to screening new, independent Japanese cinema, and­– ­like Takemitsu’s ‘Experimental Workshop’­– b ­ ecame assimilated into SAC

in Regarding the real
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Absolutely modern mysteries
Abigail Susik and Kristoffer Noheden

half of the twentieth century, limited though these examples unfortunately remain – or, for that matter, in films by directors in Asia, South America, and, recently, the African diaspora. For example, how can the post-war history of surrealist film clarify some of the reasons for which a feminist artist like Carolee Schneemann has repeatedly engaged aspects of surrealism in her experimental films from the early 1960s? What might be some of the political reasons for the activation of surrealist elements in post-war Japanese cinema, in the work of Hiroshi Teshigahara

in Surrealism and film after 1945