Sharks haunt the human imagination more than vampires, werewolves or ghosts. Sensational
representations make the shark the villain of each piece as the top predator of even
humanity. Yet since its Gothic beginnings in Anglophone representation, the shark has been
the victim. The word sharke comes from slavers tongues when the first of its kind was
brought ashore to be flayed, eaten, and its inner bowels excavated and examined. In
reading and writing the shark, humanity opens up the belly of the beast to express the
repressed and to give utterance to that which cannot be uttered– the uncanny. The argument
that follows isnt that we should read the shark as a Gothic figure, but that we already
The Eikon Basilike was the most widely printed English book of the seventeenth century and played a crucial role in shaping English political imaginary for generations after the Civil War. The work has been widely studied by literary specialists, but rarely by historians of politics or political thought. This essay offers a preliminary reading of the implicit and explicit political theory of the Eikon, exploring its account of monarchy, its Stoic features and its traditional ecclesiology. Rather than an apology for divine right absolutism, the Eikon attached itself to a more measured, constitutional understanding of monarchy. Its use of Christological imagery, as opposed to the more Davidic scriptural motifs favoured by James I, represented an ingenious effort to snatch a royalist ideological victory from the jaws of military defeat. The heroic sacrificial quality of Charles as portrayed in the Eikon dovetailed with the Stoic features of the text and with its pronounced rejection of fashionable reason-of-state thinking. But it was, above all, the dualist or ‘Laudian’ ecclesiology of the Eikon that generated the greatest controversy. The elevated account of clerical authority contained in the text made it a staple of Restoration piety, but also fuelled enormous hostility. The chapter traces these elements of the Eikon’s reception through the long-running controversy over the work’s supposed – and often doubted – royal authorship.
German investigations of Australian Aboriginal skeletal remains, c. 1860
the ratio between skull length and width, differentiating between
long-headed (dolichocephalic) and short- or round-headed (brachycephalic) races.
He divided each of these further into those with protruding and non-protruding
jaws, calling them prognathous and orthognathous races respectively. According to
Retzius, this craniometrical method enabled the ‘correction’ of race
classification based on skin colour and/or geographical distribution. 46 For example, instead of
Ralph Knevet's Supplement of the Faery Queene (1635) is a narrative and allegorical work, which weaves together a complex collection of tales and episodes, featuring knights, ladies, sorcerers, monsters, vertiginous fortresses and deadly battles – a chivalric romp in Spenser's cod medieval style. The poem shadows recent English history, and the major military and political events of the Thirty Years War. But the Supplement is also an ambitiously intertextual poem, weaving together materials from mythic, literary, historical, scientific, theological, and many other kinds of written sources. Its encyclopaedic ambitions combine with Knevet's historical focus to produce an allegorical epic poem of considerable interest and power. This new edition of Knevet's Supplement, the first scholarly text of the poem ever published, situates it in its literary, historical, biographical, and intellectual contexts. An extensive introduction and copious critical commentary, positioned at the back of the book, will enable students and scholars alike to access Knevet's complicated and enigmatic meanings, structures, and allusions.
This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.
In times of national security, scholars and activists who hail from the
communities under suspicion attempt to draw readers and listeners to the
complexity of the world we inhabit. For those who campaigned against the SUS law
in the 1980s, when young Black men were being routinely stopped in the streets,
the wave of counter-terrorism legislation and policy that exists today will be
very familiar. Similarly, recent discussions about the impact of drill music in
the culture of young Black men has drawn questions around the ways in which they
should be securitised, with senior police calling for the use of terrorism
legislation against them. In this environment, when those who study and have
lived alongside the communities who are at the scrutiny of the state raise
questions about the government, military and police policy, they are often shut
down as terrorist-sympathisers, or apologists for gang culture. In such
environments, there is an expectation on scholars and activists to condemn what
society at large fears. This volume is about how that expectation has emerged
alongside the normalisation of racism, and how these writers choose to subvert
the expectations raised on them, as part of their commitment to anti-racism.
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.
Colonial powers and Ethiopian frontiers 1880–1884 is the fourth volume of Acta
Aethiopica, a series that presents original Ethiopian documents of
nineteenth-century Ethiopian history with English translations and scholarly
notes. The documents have been collected from dozens of archives in Africa and
Europe to recover and present the Ethiopian voice in the history of Ethiopia in
the nineteenth century. The present book, the first Acta Aethiopica volume to
appear from Lund University Press, deals with how Ethiopian rulers related to
colonial powers in their attempts to open Ethiopia for trade and technological
development while preserving the integrity and independence of their country. In
addition to the correspondence and treatises with the rulers and representatives
of Italy, Egypt and Great Britain, the volume also presents letters dealing with
ecclesiastical issues, including the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.
This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.