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The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704

This study concerns the history of Gibraltar following its military conquest in 1704, after which sovereignty of the territory was transferred from Spain to Britain and it became a British fortress and colony. It focuses on the civilian population and shows how a substantial multi-ethnic Roman Catholic and Jewish population, derived mainly from the littorals and islands of the Mediterranean, became settled in British Gibraltar, much of it in defiance of British efforts to control entry and restrict residence. To explain why that population arrived and took root, the book also analyses the changing fortunes of the local economy over 300 years, the occupational opportunities presented and the variable living standards which resulted. Although for most of the period the British authorities primarily regarded Gibraltar as a fortress and governed it autocratically, they also began to incorporate civilians into administration, until it eventually, though still a British Overseas Territory, became internally a self-governing civilian democracy. The principal intention of the study is to show how the demographic, economic, administrative and political history of Gibraltar accounts for the construction, eventually and problematically, of a distinctive ‘Gibraltarian’ identity. With Gibraltar's political future still today contested, this is a matter of considerable political importance.

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The Jewish population of Leeds – how many Jews?
Nigel Grizzard

Levy are used as estimators of the Jewish population. The 1891, 1901 and 1911 census figures on the number of Jews were based on households where at least one member was born in Russia and Poland as an estimate for the Jewish population. Other researchers have looked at the number of Jewish deaths and then, using age-specific death rates, estimated the Jewish population. Similarly, a count of the number of boys circumcised has been used as an estimator of the number of Jewish births. Synagogue records have also provided data on the location and number of members, as

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

-term presence triggered an intense interest in the so-called ‘Jewish Question’ at all levels, not least among the Hungarian Jewish population itself. The wartime Jewish Question was in large part a contestation of Jewish loyalty to Hungary, calculated according to military sacrifice. The presence of Jewish refugees throughout the war, in the countryside as well as in Budapest, reminded Hungary’s population of the connection between the wartime refugees and the large-scale immigration into Hungary from Galicia that was the foundation of the contemporary Hungarian Jewish

in Europe on the move
John Edwards

There are two main aspects of the involvement of Jews in the European economy of the late medieval and early modern periods which have to be considered here. In all western European countries with Jewish populations in this period, there were restrictions on the economic roles which Jews might fulfil. These were justified on theological as much as economic

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Bryan Cheyette

favour the setting up of an Algerian national authority; secondly, ‘les fonctionnaires juifs (qui) imaginent eux aussi avec effroi la naissance d’un Etat algérien’ (‘Jewish civil servants (who) look upon the birth of an Algerian state with fear and trembling’) (Fanon 2001: 143 and 144; Fanon 1989: 154); finally, the majority of Jews, three-quarters of the Jewish population, who for the most part serve or aid the militias. The latter group makes ‘peu importante’ (‘unimportant’) the minority of Jews ‘engagé(s) activement dans les rangs du colonialisme’ (‘actively engaged

in Frantz Fanon’s 'Black Skin, White Masks
Hidden narratives of Jewish settlement and movement in the inter-war years
Tony Kushner

and were dispersed – Emanuel’s, in High Street, as was noted in Chapter 5 , had become the most famous and prominent. That spatial invisibility was, however, to change just before, during and after the First World War when a new Jewish trading community emerged, and one that was very different to its predecessors. In the period from the 1900s until the later 1930s, the Jewish population of Southampton more than tripled. According to the Jewish Year Book , in 1905 there were twenty Jewish families in the town and in 1934 this had grown to

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
Bryce Lease

the increase in support for the National Democracy, or Endecja party (which supported the Polonization of non-ethnic Poles such as German, Ukrainian, and Belorussian populations living in the country and feared Jewish economic supremacy) amplified anti-Semitism in Poland in the 1930s. Piłsudski’s death marked a negative turn in Polish/Jewish relations – much of the Jewish population saw him as their protector. The play also brings to the fore the lure of victimhood embedded within Polish national tropes. The Polish historian Andrzej Nowak has focused in his writing

in After ’89
A history
Editor: Derek Fraser

The book is a comprehensive and definitive history of the Leeds Jewish community, which was – and remains – the third largest in Britain. It is organised in three parts: Context (history, urban, demography); Chronology (covering the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1940s); and Contours (analysing themes and aspects of the history up to the present time). The book shows how a small community was affected by mass immigration, and through economic progress and social mobility achieved integration into the host society. It is a story of entrepreneurial success which transformed a proletarian community into a middle-class society. Its members contributed extensively to the economic, social, political and cultural life of Leeds, which provided a supportive environment for Jews to pursue their religion, generally free from persecution. The Leeds Jewish community lived predominantly in three locations which changed over time as they moved in a northerly direction to suburbia.

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Jonathan Silver

of architecture to convey histories of places far beyond their location and, of course, the remarkable story of the survival of the Chortkov dynasty, and the sanctuary provided to new arrivals in areas such as Broughton. The violence visited upon the Jews of Chortkov, and their survival, has found a resonance in the built environment and prompts us to consider further the ways in which synagogues bear witness to violence against the Jewish population in the conurbation. The history of Manchester’s Jewry began in the 1770s with various visiting merchants, but the

in Manchester
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Something rich and strange

Manchester: Something rich and strange challenges us to see the quintessential post-industrial city in new ways. Bringing together twenty-three diverse writers and a wide range of photographs of Greater Manchester, it argues that how we see the city can have a powerful effect on its future – an urgent question given how quickly the urban core is being transformed. The book uses sixty different words to speak about the diversity of what we think of as Manchester – whether the chimneys of its old mills, the cobbles mostly hidden under the tarmac, the passages between terraces, or the everyday act of washing clothes in a laundrette. Unashamedly down to earth in its focus, this book makes the case for a renewed imaginative relationship that recognises and champions the fact that we’re all active in the making and unmaking of urban spaces.