A quiet revolution
Author: Simha Goldin

The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.

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Simha Goldin

Medieval Jewish society saw itself as being under siege in an ongoing struggle for survival within a Christian population that abounded with threats and temptations, both economic and intellectual. The situation was defined by Jewish society as an emergency situation, and so it recruited all its resources to be able to deal with it. 1 The specific circumstances of the

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
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Simha Goldin

This study started out as, and continues to be, an attempt to understand the Jewish society living among the Christian population in the Middle Ages (from 1000 to 1350): how it functioned and how it managed to survive. My research into the history, characteristics and functioning of this society led me to the realization that these questions cannot be answered without conducting

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Martyrs, converts and anusot (forced converts)
Simha Goldin

prophecy of doom hanging over Israel. 27 In the Middle Ages, these verses took on a new meaning that emphasizes the role of the Jewish mother at a time when the Jews are under pressure to convert to Christianity. The sources that describe the Jewish experience during the First Crusade shaped the basic perception of the way Jewish society interacted with the Christian population, defined it, and related to the

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Simha Goldin

Marital relations In Jewish society, men enjoyed privileged status, which society, the halakhah and religion had given them. From Mishnaic times on (the second and third centuries CE ), an obvious trend towards rectifying and improving the status of women was advanced by men, who viewed such ameliorations as benefiting the group and averting friction, injustice

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
German-Jewish literaryproposals on garden cities in Eretz Israel
Ines Sonder

, this chapter reveals that town planning was not disregarded within the early Zionist movement, 5 but was part of a more comprehensive social concept in the building of a modern Jewish society in Eretz Israel. Herzl’s vision Thousands of white villas gleamed out of

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Simha Goldin

– had a far-reaching impact on the Jewish society that was developing in the Middle Ages, a society that glorified family life and did not preach male celibacy; a society in which women were playing an increasingly important role, both in the economic and in other spheres. From the medieval sources we see several different ‘male’ paradigms. Discovering the guiding principle behind the male sage

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
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Ambiguous passions and misrecognition
Ruth Sheldon

posted online showed a group of young men approaching and confronting the protest. This was followed by some students attempting to hit and kick each other in the street. The mock IDF soldiers and university security staff intervened and a few seconds later, the counter-​protesters ran off. Video footage showed a Palestine Society member screaming in anger at Justin (who was, as I described in Chapter 4, an active member of the Israel and Jewish Society), who was standing in the street: ‘Are you proud of yourselves? Are you actually proud of yourselves?’ The new

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics
Open Access (free)
The change in mentality
Simha Goldin

reserved for those elements within Jewish society that were perceived as weakest. On the one hand, they need to be cultivated so that they do not break, but they must also be defined as a potential danger. An example of this is found in the behavior towards children. As I have shown in my study of the attitude towards Jewish children in the Middle Ages in Christian Europe, Jewish children are the subject of a proprietary, concerned, and fashioning attitude during this period. They are smothered with physical affection, there is sensitivity to their physical vulnerability

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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Towards ethical ethnography
Ruth Sheldon

my parents had spoken of, this history shaped my research relationships in ways which complicated my existing understandings of insider/​outsider dynamics, research proximity/​distance and ethnographic selfhood. Assimilated names: understanding and arrogation My early contact with representatives of the Israel and Jewish Societies at Old University and Redbrick University felt relatively easy, compared with my tense exchanges with the Palestine and Islamic Societies. The formal structure of these student groups differed across institutions; Old University had for

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics