Simha Goldin

of the men confessed. 4 In his research among the Christian sources William Jordan found this type of Jewish woman, who is involved in the economic life of the community, comes and goes as she pleases, is self-possessed and selfconfident. In northern France, Jewish women lent money at interest to French women and to men as well. The economic activities of Jewish women in northern France and Germany

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
A quiet revolution
Author: Simha Goldin

The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.

Simha Goldin

not be ignored; moreover, the tone of the response makes it quite plain that, at that time and in this place, things had changed. Status within the family The twelfth century witnessed fundamental changes in the status of Jewish women as far as their relationships with their husbands and within the family is concerned. Two Rulings 27 gave rise to

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Martyrs, converts and anusot (forced converts)
Simha Goldin

The events of 1096 proved to be traumatic for the Jewish communities of northern Europe, and it would seem that many of the changes in the social, economic, and marital status of Jewish women, that will be identified later on, have their origins in the catastrophe that befell the Jews of the Rhine valley. It is therefore important to look at the texts and the depictions of what

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Simha Goldin

concerning Women’, Zion , 70 (2005), p. 172, and J. Dishon, ‘Images of Women in Medieval Hebrew Literature’, in Women of the World: Jewish Women and Jewish Writing , ed. J. Baskin, Detroit 1994 , pp. 35–49. 30 See Chapter 7 . 31

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Abstract only
Simha Goldin

an extensive analysis of the social status of the women in this population. The complexity of this question is amplified in the case of medieval Jewish Ashkenazi society in view of the numerous references of men to issues associated with women, and because of the challenge of elucidating the status of women in the light of the complete absence of any records left behind by Jewish women themselves in that era. 1 The Jewish

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Simha Goldin

about an unsuitable halizah and generate a problematic halakhic situation for the widow if she married again. Nevertheless, at the end of the thirteenth century, even Maharam agreed that the most damaging aspect of this problem was the behaviour of men who, because of their greed for money, created situations in which Jewish women become agunot . To Maharam this was an insufferable state of affairs

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Abstract only
Simha Goldin

that describe the coping with those who converted to Christianity during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In the sources written by Jews we hardly find examples of women converting of their own free will, although it would be logical to assume that there were women who converted along with their husbands, and even though we know from Christian sources that some Jewish women did convert. 4 The Jewish sources, however, rarely

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Simha Goldin

Commandments that have set times which women are indeed obligated to carry out and, on the other hand, women are not required to perform some of the mitzvot that are not time-bound. 30 In performing mitzvot that are required to be done at a specific time, the Jewish women of the Middle Ages were actually following a tradition already mentioned in Mishnaic literature of two women who performed time

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Author: Zoë Thomas

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.