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Catherine Baker

religious structures, from the late fourteenth century, shaped its migration history in many ways (Sugar 1977 ; Hoare 2007 ; Wachtel 2008 ). Authorities directly settled Anatolian Turkish cavalrymen on conquered land as ‘timariots’ who taxed local peasants and raised troops, while Ottoman trade-routes developed towns like Sarajevo and Thessaloniki into provincial capitals, refuges for many Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. The Ottoman politics of conversion to Islam, necessary for South Slavs and other Catholic/Orthodox Christians seeking bureaucratic

in Race and the Yugoslav region
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Allyn Fives

, and other sources of moral claims. For example, because of Nazi rule, Shklar believes that German Jews were made into exiles in the first two senses of the term. Their situation was worse than that of others exiled by Nazi rule. For instance, the labour leader Willy Brandt, who was forced to leave Germany during the Nazi era, nonetheless believed that he could remain loyal to the ‘better possibilities’ of the German people, and although his obligations to the state ‘lapsed’ under Nazism, he could return in post-war West Germany (Shklar 1993a , p. 192). In contrast

in Judith Shklar and the liberalism of fear
Towards a selective tradition
Paul K. Jones

scapegoating ‘agitation’ with, in some versions, his dialogue being drawn directly from Martin Luther Thomas's radio addresses. Others drew directly from the questionnaire and interview material of The Authoritarian Personality. The earliest mention of the film comes in the prospectus for Studies in Prejudice published in the Zeitschrift in 1941. There the characters are ‘boys’ who are either ‘Jews’ or ‘Gentiles’ with differing configurations of ‘Jewish’ or ‘Gentile’ identifying names. Even at this early stage

in Critical theory and demagogic populism
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Steven Earnshaw

never do it. Maybe becoming a Jew?’4 In this desire the spiritual dimension comes to the fore, but of course in Existential terms it would be the giving over of the self to an external value system, an action which is central to the AA programme, the ‘higher power’ of step 2. In a note related to the novel Berryman writes: ‘Existential immoral crisis: angst. Effort not only would not avail but is not available. Situation seems desperate. Yet some have escaped’,5 but again, for Berryman, the escape is through religion –​ ‘become, thro’ dependence, FREE’.6 241

in The Existential drinker
Paul K. Jones

's encouragement of ‘a paranoiac relationship to the external world’ in his audience. Accordingly, the thematic analyses focus on potentially paranoiac content in demagogic discourse: the hostility of the modern world, an escalating series of thematics relating to types of enemies (building to ‘the enemy as Jew’) and the construction of an endogamic community entailing ‘housecleaning’. 82 Adorno noted in 1968 that the discrete researches into ‘fascist stimuli’ (i.e. the demagogy studies) and

in Critical theory and demagogic populism
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Helena de Bres

for each of us, even if in actual fact they aren’t. What these twins throw disturbingly into relief isn’t our lack of control over life, but the arbitrariness of our convictions.
 About as striking an example as you can get is the real-life case of Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe, a pair of identical twins who were separated soon after their birth in 1933. Jack stayed in Trinidad, where he was raised as a liberal Jew by the twins’ father, while Oskar moved to Germany with the twins’ mother, was

in How to Be Multiple
Rousseau as a constitutionalist
Mads Qvortrup

Moses by the Lord (Exodus 20), was the birth of constitutionalism (Finer 1997). For the first time in history, a polity established the principle that the power of the king, or ruler, was restricted by a higher law. As a political historian has observed ‘the monarch [was] bound by an explicit and written law code imposed upon him, coequally with his subjects, from the outside’ (Finer 1997: 239, italics in the original). In introducing this doctrine, the Jews established, before anyone else – and at a time when unrestricted despotism was the order of the day – the

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Avoiding the ‘big hole with a lot of dead people in it’
Stephen Hobden

opposed to emancipation in the sense of ending of slavery. Emancipation has thus also been used to refer to specific groups. In the nineteenth century there was much discussion of the emancipation of the Jewish population in Europe. In much of Europe, there were severe restrictions on activities allowed to Jewish people, including their employment and residence. Emancipation of the Jews referred to the removal of these restrictions. Revolutionary movements such as in Russia and China had the ambition of emancipating their populations. Women's movements have seen women

in Critical theory and international relations
Paul K. Jones

. 15 Jay, ‘The Jews and the Frankfurt School’, 144–147. 16 Adorno et al., The Authoritarian Personality , 608. Cf. Jay, ‘The Jews and the Frankfurt School’, 143. 17 Jay, ‘The Jews and the Frankfurt School’, 143. Cf. Adorno, ‘Scientific Experiences of a

in Critical theory and demagogic populism
Rainer Forst

); on the other hand, it manifests the inequality of this group and its extreme dependence on the good will of the monarch (and on existing constellations of power). Thus, such an edict represented clear progress – and just as clearly a policy of domination and unequal treatment (and sometimes also of blackmail, if we think, for example, of the conditions under which Jews were ‘tolerated’ in Christian countries). However, to the truth of a dialectical history of toleration there also belongs the fact that in the course of the modern democratic revolutions a

in Toleration, power and the right to justification