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Writers in a common cause
Author: Carol Polsgrove

Across the continent of Africa, a web of laws silenced African speech. On the eve of World War II, a small, impoverished group of Africans and West Indians in London dared to imagine the end of British rule in Africa. Printing gave oppositions a voice, initially through broadsheets, tracts, pamphlets, later through books and articles. The group launched an anti-colonial campaign that used publishing as a pathway to liberation. These writers included West Indians George Padmore, C. L. R. James, and Ras Makonnen, Kenya's Jomo Kenyatta and Sierra Leone's I. T. A. Wallace Johnson. They formed a part of International African Service Bureau (IASB), and the communists saw them as "generals without an army, they have no base and must depend on their pens". Padmore saw 'trusteeship' as a concept invoked as far back as the late nineteenth-century conferences that divided up Africa. Pan-Africa, a monthly periodical T. Ras Makonnen put out, reported that Richard Wright urged his listeners to form an international network of 'cultured progressives'. Labour-powered nationalism was to Padmore more than a drive for self-government. With the Gold Coast political ground so unsettled, neither Nkrumah nor the Convention People's Party (CPP) made Wright privy to their operations. Inspired by the movement for self-government in British West African colonies, French radicals like Leopold Senghor were rebelling against French political control. In 1969, when a small American publisher reissued A History of Pan-African Revolt , James added to it an epilogue explaining the 'rapid decline of African nationalism'.

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Anthropology, European imperialism, and the politics of knowledge

Many questions present themselves when considering the historical relationship between anthropology and empire following the Scramble for Africa. These include the extent of imperial fortunes in Africa, rising and falling with officials' knowledge of the people under their jurisdiction. This book looks at the institutional frameworks of anthropology, and shows that the colonial project to order Africa, intellectually and politically, was a messy and not-so comprehensive endeavor. It first considers the roles of metropolitan researchers and institutes such as the colonial ethnographers active in French West Africa, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Berlin, and the British-based International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The book deals with the role of African ethnograpghers for their study on African teaching assistants and schoolmasters-cum-ethnographers, and the study of Jomo Kenyatta's journey to produce Facing Mount Kenya. Swiss missionaries undertook discovery and domestication first on European soil before it was transferred to African soils and societies. Primordial imagination at work in equatorial Africa is discussed through an analysis of Fang ethnographies, and the infertility scares among Mongo in the Belgian Congo is contrasted with the Nzakara in the French Congo. Once colonial rule had been imposed, administrators and imperial managers were often forced to consider those judicial and social rules that had governed Africans' lives and had predated colonialism. Studies of Italian Northeast Africa, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and French West Africa reveal the uneven ways in which ethnographic knowledge was pursued and applied in this respect.

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Pan-African Politician and Diplomat
W. Andy Knight

. 2 As detailed in his 1993 book, From Kingston to Kenya: The Making of a Pan-Africanist Lawyer , Thompson’s British legal training came in handy, while living in Moshi, during his anti-colonialist struggle for the rights of Africans. His focus was particularly on individuals across Africa who had suffered indignities and exploitation at the hands of the European colonial powers. Some of those individuals included young leaders such as Kenya’s Jomo Kenyatta, a Kikuyu whom Thompson had met in London during his university days and

in The Pan-African Pantheon
The Mau Mau uprising in Kenyan collective memory
Winfried Speitkamp

‘We must have no hatred towards one another. Mau Mau was a disease which had been eradicated, and must never be remembered again’. 1 When Jomo Kenyatta spoke these words in 1962, he was referring to the Mau Mau uprising against British colonial rule, which was among the bloodiest colonial wars in history. It began in the Kikuyu region in the

in Sites of imperial memory
Kenyatta, Malinowski, and the making of Facing Mount Kenya
Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale

Jomo Kenyatta and Bronislaw Malinowski met in December 1934, soon after the latter had told Princess Marie Bonaparte he was to meet ‘real experts’ on the Kikuyu people. 2 Malinowski had spent a week in the Kikuyu area of Kenya two months previously. He shared with the princess, one of Freud’s first female students, an interest in Kikuyu

in Ordering Africa
Open Access (free)
The male leader’s autobiography and the syntax of postcolonial nationalism
Elleke Boehmer

autobiographical texts by a group of west and southern African nationalist leaders-at-independence, some of whom have already been introduced: Nnamdi Azikiwe and Obafemi Awolowo (Nigeria), Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana), Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) and Albert Luthuli (South Africa).19 These are combined with an authorised biography of Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) that bears signs of being ghosted by the subject himself.20 Most of the autobiographies were published within a decade of one another with Nkrumah’s autobiography the first to appear, in 1957, and Azikiwe’s, a long and retrospective account

in Stories of women
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Coins and the creation of new national identities
Catherine Eagleton

becoming increasingly personally associated with the nation as well as with his political principles of self-reliance. Kenya and Kenyatta During 1965 the Mint was also asked to produce designs for the new currency for Kenya. These were to feature a portrait of President Jomo Kenyatta and the inscription ‘Republic of Kenya’. London-based sculptor Norman

in Cultures of decolonisation
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Tamson Pietsch

Laby and scholars like them moved along the broad highways of the British academic world. But personal ties that straddled oceans could frequently fail to cross the country, or even the road. Men like Brailsford Robertson or the Irish candidates for physics positions, who lacked the right connections, travelled much more difficult paths. Dadabhai Naoroji and Jomo Kenyatta found themselves

in Empire of scholars
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Global Pan-African Feminist
Rhoda Reddock

International Afro Restaurant run with her partner, Trinidadian Calypso singer Sam Manning, became a key meeting point for Caribbean and African intellectuals. She came into contact with continental Africans and was influenced by the more socialist-oriented West Indians and Africans such as C.L.R James, George Padmore (see Cudjoe and Duggan in this volume), Una Marson, Ras Makonnen, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah (see Biney in this volume) and others. This interaction would be different from the black nationalism of the Harlem period, and, most significantly, it allowed for the

in The Pan-African Pantheon
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Making Life Sing in Pursuit of Utu
Ndirangu Wachanga

, thus enabling her to transcend critical literary barriers that often separate readers from a text and its context. Mugo’s inexorable commitment to artistic expression, education, democracy, representation, human rights and economic equality sparked the anger of the Kenyan governments of Jomo Kenyatta (1963–78) and Daniel arap Moi (1978–2002), triggering a series of political battles that subsequently forced her into exile in 1982. A Difficult, Privileged Childhood Micere

in The Pan-African Pantheon