The populist wave which has submerged Europe and the United States in recent years seems unstoppable. But is it? The End of Populism offers answers and proposes concrete solutions to confront the rise of “illiberal democracy.” Drawing on years of research, the author develops a complete new ideal type of populism, which enables him to identify the basic problems. Deploying a wealth of social science evidence, he refutes the populist claim that democracy is a “demand side” phenomenon, and demonstrates that it is rather a “supply side” phenomenon. He argues that one can have "too much democracy” and shows how methods of direct democracy, such as popular initiatives, referendums, and open primaries, which pretend “to give the power back to the people,” have led to manipulation by populists and moneyed interests. Populist attacks on the judiciary, central banks, the media, and other independent agencies, instead of strengthening democracy, have rather undermined liberal democracy. The author formulates twenty original and bold proposals to fight populism and defend liberal democracy. These proposals include ways to bridge the gap between the people and the elites, fight corruption, improve political party funding, and initiate societal, educational, and macro-economic reforms to increase economic equality and alleviate the insecurity of the citizens.
democratic demand.” According to this theory, a democratic polity realizes the demand of the people for the common good. This demand is directly expressed by their common will. In this theory there is no need for a supply of ideas about the “common good” by political leaders and political parties. The presupposition of this theory is that there is a pre-existing idea of the common good, known intuitively by the citizens, who do not need the support or mediation of other political actors or experts to know what they want.
JosephSchumpeter’s attack on classical democratic
This is not a problem until a situation arises which presents an existential threat and a
paradigm shift is required purely for survival, which was of course the rationale that
the original ALNAP study gave for innovation. This rationale draws on the idea of
creative destruction, the phrase coined by JosephSchumpeter to describe how the
‘fundamental impulse that sets and keeps the capitalist engine in motion comes
from the new consumers’ goods, the new methods of production or transportation
biographies and the 1943 Bengal famine’,
Studies in History , 24, 2 (2008), pp.
JosephSchumpeter, Imperialism and Social
Classes , trans. Heinz Norden (Oxford 1951).
Peo Hansen, ‘European integration
Ms Betty Boothroyd was right to warn Parliament against the everpresent dangers of political apathy – turnout has dropped in recent years
(though it did go up marginally in 2005). However, politics is more than
just voting. The idea that political involvement is nothing more than our
right to choose our rulers, as proposed by John Stuart Mill and JosephSchumpeter, is but one model of democracy – and not an unchallenged
one at that.
Twentieth-century writers and politicians have argued that political
participation can assume other forms, including protests, signing
The theoretical justification for citizen involvement
The political theory of direct democracy:
the theoretical justification for
Since the French Revolution and certainly for the better part of the
past 100 years, representative democracy has been the norm. JosephSchumpeter – an economist and political theorist – summed up the
prevailing view in his acclaimed book Capitalism, Socialism and
[Democracy does] not mean and cannot mean that the people actually rule
in any obvious sense of the terms ‘people’ and ‘rule.’ Democracy means
only that the people have the opportunity of
Andrew McMeekin, Ken Green, Mark Tomlinson, and Vivien Walsh
‘mainstream’ innovation literature has long stressed the importance of
demand in understanding innovation processes. However, there has been
comparatively little analysis of these connections, with the majority of studies focusing on the co-ordination and management of the supply side. This
neglect perhaps stems from the work of JosephSchumpeter, an economist
of technological change, who wrote several defining texts in the twentieth
century. In his analysis, innovation was treated as a major driving force of
economic growth, emanating from the risk-taking investments of
death on a previously unimaginable scale. The falcon – new technologies and sciences, in this instance – certainly seemed to have flown out of earshot of its falconer.
It was during these same interwar years that economist JosephSchumpeter began forming the theories of entrepreneurship, capitalism, and the business cycle that have become core texts in our innovation discourse. Erwin Dekker ( 2018 ) positions Schumpeter as a member of the avant garde : a Futurist fascinated by the dynamism and possibilities of radical technological change but rendered pessimistic
, and over the years numerous thinkers have reasoned that the system of taxation is synonymous with the establishment of modern statehood. According to economist JosephSchumpeter (1883–1950) the modern capitalist state is first and foremost a tax state, while sociologist Norbert Elias (1897–1990) considered taxation a necessary condition in the slow process of civilization. Philosophical inquiry in the ethics of taxation is almost as old as philosophy itself, with Plato commenting in Book I of the Republic that ‘When there is an income tax, the just man will pay
for political parties
that then represent their interests in Parliament. At the extremes of
thin democracy are theories such as that of JosephSchumpeter, who
claims that democracy is merely a battle by political elites for the
votes of passive citizens.3 The act of people voting merely provides
an incentive for elites to serve voters well.
In a broad democracy citizens take a more active part in the institutions and decision-making processes, and there is a strong public
culture of democratic debate. Less power is delegated to representatives and more is exercised