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In 1997, Stuart Clark published the first monograph since the time of Jules Michelet to focus on pre-modern ideas about witches. The language of belief in witchcraft studies betrays an anachronistic, modernist and dismissive approach to a mental universe quite different from our own. This book makes the male witch visible, to construct him as a historical subject, as a first step toward a deeper understanding of the functions and role of gender in pre-modern European witch-hunting and ideas about witches. The overtly political dimension to the study of witches in early modern Europe demands a high level of consciousness and reflexivity regarding language, representation, and meaning. William Monter provides a wealth of data about male witches, in an 'unremarkable province' close to 'the heart of northern and western Europe'. Here, men comprised the majority of those tried and executed for witchcraft. The book examines cases in which men were accused of witchcraft. The examples are drawn from several different regions, in order to test conventional generalisations about male witches. The agency theory posits that actors always have choices; 'agent-centred' morality proposes a novel twist on both traditional Kantian internalist categories. The problems of both male and female witches' agency and selfhood are discussed. The book also presents data compiled from ten canonical works, and a brief discussion of demonological illustrations. Finally, it addresses the question of what it means to label a man as a witch within a framework that explicitly and implicitly feminised witchcraft.

French historiography from the 1870s to the 1950s
Camille Creyghton

narrative on French historiography from the nineteenth century onwards, in which historians are classified according to three successive generations, schools or paradigms with wholly different and mutually exclusive ways of doing research and writing history: the Romanticist generation of, roughly, the years 1830–70 with Jules Michelet as its most notable representative; the ‘methodological’ or positivist generation of the period 1870–1930, exemplified by the textbook of Charles-Victor Langlois and Charles Seignobos that nowadays is more mocked than read; and the

in How to be a historian
Abstract only
Susan K. Foley

not be successfully installed unless republicanism was first implanted in hearts and minds. Republicans looked to the family to achieve this goal. During the Second Empire, republican theorists such as Jules Michelet and Eugène Pelletan criticised the authoritarian family model and portrayed idealised images of a revitalised family. 6 Some republican women aspired to go even further than male

in Republican passions
Cara Delay

concerns that they were conspiring to challenge the authority of husbands, particularly after the publication of historian Jules Michelet’s anti-clerical Priests, Women, and Families (1845). Focusing on the French case, Michelet denounced the camaraderie between women and Catholic priests, 212 irish women arguing that when women confided in their clergy while in the confessional, they undermined the power of their husbands. In Michelet’s view, the connections between women and priests threatened patriarchy and thus the natural order of the family. He feared that

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Open Access (free)
Lara Apps
Andrew Gow

existed. In 1997, Stuart Clark published the first monograph since the time of Jules Michelet to focus on pre-modern ideas about witches. 1 Clark takes early modern ideas about witchcraft seriously; indeed, he devotes his first chapter to the language of witchcraft and the need to take ‘belief’ seriously as a motivating factor. However, Clark and the scholars beginning to follow his lead have retained the language of belief

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Carolyn Steedman

presented between inverted commas (or, in a mid eighteenth-century transitional practice for representing direct speech, set in italics). Indeed it was an early proclamation of the new, modern, professional, university-based history which emerged in the long European nineteenth century, that the dead could be made to walk and talk. In 1869, Jules Michelet announced the raising of the dead in writing as the proper task of the historian. He was remembering back to his 11 James Beattie, Essays. On Poetry and Music, … On Laughter, … On the Utility of Classical Learning

in Poetry for historians
The development of a new design aesthetic
Anca I. Lasc

. For him, the world of living beings represented one of the most powerful sources of inspiration for interior decoration. He referenced Jules Michelet’s book The Insect, which had introduced a new aesthetic vocabulary inspired by the small world of the insect, the plant, the seashell, and the mollusk in a chapter titled “On the Renewal of Our Arts through the Study of the Insect.”85 Building on Michelet’s discussion, Sandier invented a decorative vocabulary of his own, which he exemplified in his Revue illustrée dining room: By following this fruitful principle, and

in Interior decorating in nineteenth-century France
Transnationalism and the sense of place
Matt Perry

evidence about the flu and mutiny entwine. Thus, 120 on board the battlecruiser Jules Michelet were exempted from coal duty in early January 1919 for this reason. Already worried about discontent, Rear Admiral Gustave Lejay noted how this and dock strikes in Odessa intensified the unpopular burdens on other sailors.32 An official report on the causes of the mutiny on the Justice noted the poor hygiene aboard and that the daily rate of those exempt from duties because of the flu in Odessa was seventy to one hundred.33 The mutiny thus spread alongside transnational

in Mutinous memories
Abstract only
A history of times
Alexandra Paulin-Booth

. 26 These thinkers all gave a vivid sense of both the destructive forces at work in the turbulent present and of the expanded but unknown future possibilities which might materialise after the painful severance with the past. For the pre-eminent historian Jules Michelet, the events of the 1790s illuminated the past rather than simply doing away with it. The ‘spirit’ of the French Revolution, he opined

in Time and radical politics in France
The public on education and politics
Adrian O’Connor

5 Revolutionary politics à la plume: the public on education and politics Jules Michelet described the spring of 1789 as the “true era of the birth of the people. It called the whole nation to the exercise of its rights. They could at least write their complaints, their wishes, and choose the electors.”1 While historians have been quick to note the distance that separated the representatives in Versailles and the people who had elected them, Michelet’s point is worth remembering. The citizens could write. And write they did. They built upon the precedent of the

in In pursuit of politics