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Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

Sean Healy
Victoria Russell

at an informal meeting of the EU Justice and Home Affairs Ministers ( HRW, 2017 ). In the view of those running MSF’s operations, this put NGOs in a situation of ‘damned if you do, and damned if you don’t’. Signing and endorsing the code of conduct would be an admission that NGOs needed regulations and control when in fact all SAR NGO operations were already being carried out under the coordination of the Italian maritime authorities. Those

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
David Brown

on the ground, the national level is not the primary focus. The Third Pillar: a brief chronology Before outlining the structure of this book, it is worth briefly sketching the Third Pillar’s chronological development, to create a context for the analysis and to introduce some of the key terminology. As noted earlier, the Third Pillar was established in 1992, as part of the TEU, to organise a European level response to internal security concerns. The ‘Provisions on co-operation in the fields of Justice and Home Affairs’ focused on nine areas, including immigration

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
David Brown

); Karen Henderson, Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union (London: Taylor and Francis, 1999). For details, see Justice and Home Affairs Council, Convention based on Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union, on the Establishment of a European Police Office on 26 July 1995 (Brussels: 1995). Cyrille Fijnaut cited in Ferruccio Pastore, ‘The European Union and the fight against terrorism’, in Ferruccio Pastore et al., Is there a European Strategy Against Terrorism? (Rome: CeSPI, 2005), p. 9. European Commission, Developing a Comprehensive and

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Bill Jones

body were strengthened and the term ‘European Union’ was introduced. The EU embodied the European Community (tariff and economic matters) as one ‘pillar’; defence and foreign policy as another; and justice and home affairs as the third. Further enlargement In 1995, Finland, Sweden and Austria joined now that the Soviet Union was no longer a controlling influence, so now there were fifteen member states – though Norway refused to join after a referendum. In 2004, another ten nations joined, bringing the total to twenty-five, with two more shortly afterwards to

in British politics today
Mark Webber

Council and the Commission on How Best to Implement the Provisions of the Treaty of Amsterdam on [the] Area of Freedom, Security and Justice’, January 1999, Official Journal of the European Communities , C/19/04 (1999). 104 J. Monar, ‘Justice and Home Affairs in a Wider Europe: The Dynamics of

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Towards supranational governance in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

The European Commission had become one of the more contentious actors during both Irish referenda on the Lisbon Treaty. This book discusses the role of the European Commission and institutions more generally, as well as the policy area of justice and home affairs. It argues that it is important to evaluate the role of EU institutions for the process of European integration. The book suggests a reconceptualisation of the framework of supranational policy entrepreneurs (SPEs), which is often referred to by the academic literature that discusses the role of agency in European integration. It focuses on the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) at the policy and treaty levels; primarily on four grounds: academic literature, SPE behaviour, EU's policymaking, and the interplay between treaty negotiations and policy-making. To analyse the role of the European institutions, the book combines an analysis of the Lisbon Treaty in relation to the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice with an analysis of the policy-making in the same area. The public policy model by John Kingdon with constructivist international relations literature is also outlined. The external dimension of counter-terrorism in the EU; the role of the EU institutions in EU asylum and migration; and the role of he Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is discussed. The book also analyses the role of the EU institutions in the communitarisation of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, and thus subsequently in the Lisbon Treaty.

Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

justice and home affairs; to develop a common peace and security policy; to enhance the rights of EU citizens. Its main organs are: the European Council (representing Member States); the European Parliament (representing the citizens of the Member States); the European Commission

in The basics of international law
David Brown

US State Department data has to be used, particularly for the pre September 11 period, as the EU did not carry out any assessment at that time. 5 For details, see the Justice and Home Affairs Acquis 1993–2000 (2001), . 6

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Christian Kaunert

AFSJ since the beginning. Stage 1: Justice and Home Affairs laboratories in the pre-1992 phase In his widely cited and authoritative article ‘The Dynamics of Justice and Home Affairs: Laboratories, Driving Factors and Costs’ (Monar, 2001b ), Monar claims that the rapid development of Justice and Home Affairs 1 into a major field of EU policy-making since the beginning of the

in European internal security