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A study in obsolete patriotism
Author: W.J. Reader

The Victorian private solider was a despised figure. Yet in the first sixteen months of the Great War two and a half million men from the UK and many more from the empire, flocked to the colours without any form of legal compulsion. This book is the result of reflection on one of the most extraordinary mass movements in history: the surge of volunteers into the British army during the first sixteen months of the Great War. The notion that compulsory service in arms was repugnant to British tradition was mistaken. The nation's general state of mind, system of values and set of attitudes derived largely from the upper middle class, which had emerged and become dominant during the nineteenth century. The book examines the phenomenon of 1914 and the views held by people of that class, since it was under their leadership that the country went to war. It discusses the general theoretical notions of the nature of war of two nineteenth-century thinkers: Karl von Clausewitz and Charles Darwin. By 1914 patriotism and imperialism were interdependent. The early Victorians directed their abundant political energies chiefly towards free trade and parliamentary reform. It was the Germans' own policy which jolted the British into unity, for the Cabinet and the nation were far from unanimously in favour of war until the Germans attacked Belgium. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of 'liberal education' at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge.

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Clausewitz, Darwin, Henty and others
W.J. Reader

upper intellectual atmosphere, let us glance at two nineteenth-century thinkers, neither likely to be familiar to ordinary Englishmen, unless indirectly and superficially, and far removed from each other in subject-matter. One is Karl von Clausewitz (1780-1831), a Prussian general who served against Napoleon, and the other is Charles Darwin (1809-1882), who came of a numerous family at the centre of the high-Victorian ‘intellectual aristocracy’ (seep. 129 below) of liberal Britain. Clausewitz’s book On War , first published

in 'At duty’s call'
Martin Ferguson Smith

the end of the war. No doubt he was able to give them financial assistance, and he kept himself busy. He read and played the piano, busied himself with his family memoir, and gave Thijs much help with the latter’s translation of Karl von Clausewitz’s treatise On War . 102 It would be surprising if he did not think often of his father in connection with Clausewitz, not least in reference to a famous passage in the first chapter: “We see, therefore, that war is not merely a political act but a real political

in In and out of Bloomsbury
David E. Omissi

spartan or absent. When Freya Stark crossed an RAF landingground on the road to Shibam in the Hadramawt in 1936, she found it to be ‘scarce distinguishable from the general smoothness of the valley floor’. Elsewhere, landing grounds were rougher and minor accidents on uneven ground were common. 23 Air power in a resistant medium Karl von Clausewitz, in what is

in Air power and colonial control