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Cold War diplomacy, strategy and security 1950–53

Coming just five years after the ravages of the Second World War, the Korean war was a deeply unsettling moment in post-war British history. This book is a study of Britain's diplomatic, military and security policy during the Korean War as seen from the perspective of the British Government. It explores the social and cultural impact of the Korean War (1950-53) on Britain. From allegations about American use of 'germ' warfare to anxiety over Communist use of 'brainwashing' and treachery at home, the Korean War precipitated a series of short-lived panics in 1950s Britain. The book charts the war's changing position in British popular imagination and asks how it became known as the 'Forgotten War'. The study presented argues that the British did have influence over American decision-making during the Korean War. Whereas the existing United Nations resolutions would permit 'swirling' across the 38th parallel operations of a politico-military nature would require further United Nations consideration. The British did not have a veto over American strategy in Korea - but under the Truman administration they came pretty close to one with respect to the widening of the war into China. The Attlee-Truman talks, in December 1950, secured for the British the watershed agreement of the right to be consulted on the use of the atomic bomb. The book also talks about General Douglas MacArthur, the 1951 Chinese capture of Seoul by communists, and the concept of a British 'Manchurian Candidate'-type figure indoctrinated by the Chinese in Korea.

Citizenship, selfhood and forgetting
Author: Grace Huxford

The Korean War in Britain explores the social and cultural impact of the Korean War (1950–53) on Britain. Coming just five years after the ravages of the Second World War, Korea was a deeply unsettling moment in post-war British history. When North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950, Britons worried about a return to total war and the prospect of atomic warfare. As the war progressed, British people grew uneasy about the conduct of the war. From American ‘germ’ warfare allegations to anxiety over Communist use of ‘brainwashing’, the Korean War precipitated a series of short-lived panics in 1950s Britain. But by the time of its uneasy ceasefire in 1953, the war was becoming increasingly forgotten, with more attention paid to England’s cricket victory at the Ashes than to returning troops. Using Mass Observation surveys, letters, diaries and a wide range of under-explored contemporary material, this book charts the war’s changing position in British popular imagination, from initial anxiety in the summer of 1950 through to growing apathy by the end of the war and into the late-twentieth century. Built around three central concepts – citizenship, selfhood and forgetting – The Korean War in Britain connects a critical moment in Cold War history to post-war Britain, calling for a more integrated approach to Britain’s Cold War past. It explores the war a variety of viewpoints – conscript, POW, protestor and veteran – to offer the first social history of this ‘forgotten war’. It is essential reading for anyone interested in Britain’s post-1945 history.

This book demonstrates the continuities and the changes in wartime nursing during the one hundred years, from 1854 to 1953. It examines the work that nurses of many differing nations undertook during the Crimean War, the Boer War, the Spanish Civil War, both World Wars and the Korean War. The influence that Florence Nightingale had on Southern women providing nursing care to Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War, and the work of the flight nurses, are detailed. The book also examines the challenges faced by nurses caring for the thousands of soldiers suffering from typhoid epidemics, and those at the Norwegian Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (NORMASH). The decades following the Crimean War witnessed a burgeoning of personal narratives relating accounts of nurses who ministered to combatants in the Franco-Prussian and Anglo-Zulu wars. In considering the work of First World War military nurses, the book explores the dangerous military and political worlds in which nurses negotiated their practice. The book argues that the air evacuation system which had originated during the Second World War was an exciting nursing innovation for the service of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). At the beginning of the Second Anglo-Boer War, there were three distinct groups of female nurses: the Army Nursing Reserve; civilian nurses; and volunteers, many of whom came under the auspices of the Red Cross. The humanitarian work of trained and volunteer nurses after the liberation of Bergen-Belsen in 1945, and their clinical wisdom enabled many of the victims to rehabilitate.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

obligation to provide humanitarian assistance wherever it is needed’ ( International Committee of the Red Cross, 1994 : 1). Humanitarian Situation in the DPRK The DPRK made its first large-scale appeal for international humanitarian aid in 1995. Prior to this, the country was a habitual recipient of fraternal aid from the Soviet Union, China and Eastern Europe. North Korean founder Kim Il Sung’s economy needed aid at first to rebuild after the Korean War, and then to sustain itself. While Kim Il Sung’s son and successor Kim Jong Il, and grandson and current

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The Korean War in Britain
Grace Huxford

1 Introduction: The Korean War in Britain In the summer of 1950, the journalist Malcolm Muggeridge was holidaying in Portofino on the Italian Riviera when the news broke that, on 25 June, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) had invaded its southern neighbour, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Muggeridge worried about how he and his wife would re-​join their children should this be the beginning of a wider war. Journeying steadily back to Britain, Muggeridge wrote in his diary in Monte Carlo that everyone was ‘frenziedly following the Korean news, some

in The Korean War in Britain
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Thomas Hennessey

Introduction Introduction T his book is a study of Britain’s diplomatic, military and security policy during the Korean War as seen from the perspective of the British Government. This subject has attracted a limited, albeit, significant interest, among historians in contrast to what may be regarded as the defining event of the 1950s UK–US ‘special relationship’: the Suez crisis of 1956. Essentially, at various times, critics have argued that, in Danchev’s description, the ‘special relationship is not what it was, nor what its fervent believers would like it to

in Britain’s Korean War
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The Korean War in popular memory, 1953– 2014
Grace Huxford

157 v 6 v Forgetting Korea: The Korean War in popular memory, 1953–​2014 Former national service conscript Ronald Larby wrote in his self-​ published memoir that after the war: Everything and everybody connected with … Korea just simply sank out of sight. Years went by during which time I never met anyone who had served in Korea. There were no books in the library and no films about Korea. There was nothing. It was as though it –​the Korean War –​had never happened. A truly forgotten war.1 Popular history has an abundant supply of books claiming to recover

in The Korean War in Britain
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National servicemen in the Korean War
Grace Huxford

73 v 3 v Citizen soldiers: National servicemen in the Korean War Compulsory peacetime military service –​national service –​left a mark on an entire generation of young British men. Some loved it: called up in April 1948, Ron Laver argued that ‘those years were the best of our lives’.1 Others loathed it: Patrick Wye, a Private in the Royal Army Service Corps, described it in his unpublished autobiography as ‘a great cloud on the horizon of our youth’ and Barry Smith talked of getting it ‘over with’ when he was called up on 15 March 1951.2 For some, its

in The Korean War in Britain
Korean War prisoners of war
Grace Huxford

96 v 4 v Brainwashing in Britain: Korean War prisoners of war Brainwashing is an iconic twentieth-​ century term:  over-​ used and under-​analysed, its evolving usage since 1950 encapsulates many of the century’s anxieties, prejudices and lay understandings of human behaviour. It has been frequently used as a pejorative term to describe the unwitting, external manipulation of individuals and their view on the world. In modern Britain, it has been applied to topics as far-​ranging as political outlooks, religious fundamentalism, history teaching and

in The Korean War in Britain
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Thomas Hennessey

Conclusion Conclusion B ritain’s Korean War demonstrated both the limits and opportunities for influencing the United States’ policy during the early Cold War. The disagreements, during the conflict, between the United Kingdom and the United States, were merely one aspect of a series of difficulties between the two Powers: Persia, Germany, and Egypt remain the glaring examples. But disagreement did not equate with powerlessness to influence the Americans. And this – influence – was what the British, conscious of their real decline in power since the Second

in Britain’s Korean War