Research on soldier settlement has to be set within the wider history of emigration and immigration. This book examines two parallel but complementary themes: the settlement of British soldiers in the overseas or 'white' dominions, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, between 1915 and 1930. One must place soldier settlement within the larger context of imperial migration prior to 1914 in order to elicit the changes in attitude and policy which occurred after the armistice. The book discusses the changes to Anglo-dominion relations that were consequent upon the incorporation of British ex-service personnel into several overseas soldier settlement programmes, and unravels the responses of the dominion governments to such programmes. For instance, Canadians and Australians complained about the number of ex-imperials who arrived physically unfit and unable to undertake employment of any kind. The First World War made the British government to commit itself to a free passage scheme for its ex-service personnel between 1914 and 1922. The efforts of men such as L. S. Amery who attempted to establish a landed imperial yeomanry overseas is described. Anglicisation was revived in South Africa after the second Anglo-Boer War, and politicisation of the country's soldier settlement was an integral part of the larger debate on British immigration to South Africa. The Australian experience of resettling ex-servicemen on the land after World War I came at a great social and financial cost, and New Zealand's disappointing results demonstrated the nation's vulnerability to outside economic factors.
the influence of the press on the outcome of elections.
Part II concludes with an excursus on the powers of members of
Parliament (MPs). Traditional political thinking in the UK – and related
countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada – has always
maintained that British democracy, in the words of the constitutionalist
L.S. Amery (1964, 1), is one of ‘government of the people, for the
people, with, but not by the people’. It follows from this ideal of representative government that Parliament is a strong institution which, it is
supposed, can hold the
respective bureaucracies and the changes in
attitude and policy formulation that resulted have attracted equally
sparse attention. Similarly, the impact of key imperial and national
visionaries on soldier settlement policy, notably men such as L. S.
Amery, who stamped his personal mark on the free passage scheme in the
attempt to establish a landed imperial yeomanry overseas, has until now not been fully
The impact of the South African War on imperial defence
Field, The Forgotten War: Australia and the Boer
War (Melbourne, pbk edn 1995), pp. 193–9,
based (with corrections) on statistics in L. S. Amery,
The Times History of the War in South Africa,
6 vols (London, 1900–09), vol. 4, appendix I and
vol. 5, p. 697
, introducing the causes of the war, L. S. Amery
fought … to vindicate the white man’s birthright
– the right of all white men that come into a new
country, and join in the work of developing and making it,
to claim their share of political privileges. Our endeavour
Secretary of State and
L. S. Amery as Under-Secretary. The commitment to imperial unity of
Milner and Amery was well known. Under their direction state policy took
a decisive turn towards the imperialist conception of British
‘A way out of our
troubles’: 50 Oversea Settlement and the post-war
unemployment crisis, 1918
flagged airlines, even
Churchill changed his view that civil flying should be self-financing.
And, in 1935, no less a figure than L. S. Amery, ex-Colonial and
Dominions Secretary, warned against letting British aviation suffer from
either laissez faire or from the payment of subsidies too small
to sustain it. The phrases ‘almost unthinkable’, and
‘height of folly and shortsightedness’, leap from the
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Cultures of Unionism 83
41 Kennedy, ‘Troubled Tories’, p. 585; Sykes, ‘Radical right and crisis of conservatism’,
42 Smith, Tories and Ireland, p. 173.
43 Long, Memories, p. 203; Smith, Tories and Ireland, p. 175.
44 Jackson, Popular Opposition to Irish Home Rule, p. 182.
45 Ibid., pp. 134–6.
46 Parliamentary Archives, London, Willoughby de Broke MSS, WB6/3, Robert
Cecil to Lord Willoughby de Broke, 18 September 1913.
47 Jackson, Popular Opposition to Irish Home Rule, p. 134.
48 Amery MSS, AMEL1/2/26, Memo. by L.S. Amery
The discourse of modernization in the concentration camps of the South African War, 1899–1902
Elizabeth van Heyningen
terms – our cause is just and good, yours is wrong, probably
evil, and you, the enemy, are lesser human beings than we are. In South
Africa, at least among the lay public and even among some academics, the
1899–1902 war sometimes continues to be depicted in this way.
In his introduction to The Times History of the War in South
Africa L.S. Amery spelt out the British argument for the
conquest of the