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Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Brian Nolan

3 Disability and the labour market Brian Nolan Introduction People with disabilities face many barriers to full participation in society, not least in the labour market. The extent and nature of participation in the labour market has a multitude of direct and indirect effects on living s­ tandards and quality of life, underpinning the patterns of poverty and e­ xclusion ­discussed in the previous chapter. Major differences in labour market ­outcomes are observed between those affected by disability and others across the ­ industrialised ­countries – see Acemoglu

in The economics of disability
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Towards a critical race theory of the labour market
Ebun Joseph

Conclusion: towards a critical race theory of the labour market Racial stratification is not an unproblematic concept. It is widely acknowledged by many race proponents as a key determinant of socioeconomic outcomes among groups based on their racial categorisation. In chapter 5 of this book, I described racial stratification as a homogenising system of structured inequality, where an assigned default starting position determines access to scarce and desired resources based on racial group membership. While it is clear that the equal positioning of human

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
How migrants change their place on the labour supply chain
Ebun Joseph

6 Intersecting stratifiers: how migrants change their place on the labour supply chain Despite the difficulty experienced by migrant groups in the labour market, there is always mobility. This can go in a number of directions: upward, downward or lateral. Meanwhile, some migrant groups stagnate, remaining stuck. Whites enjoy better mobility in the system and thus dominate, while darker-skinned workers are known to be overrepresented in unpaid and low-paid labour sectors, thus forming racialised ghettos in the labour market. Based on micro-level analysis of the

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
How migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems
Ebun Joseph

their race is an individual characteristic that explains individual outcomes (Zuberi and Bashi, 1997). However, authors drawing on the melting pot ideology still tend to credit the outcome of minorities to their purported in-assimilability (Myrdal, 1962), again making the migrant the problem that needs to JOSEPH 9781526134394 PRINT.indd 151 03/07/2020 15:44 152 Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market be fixed. The theory of immigration and racial stratification criticises this over-reliance on ethnic and behavioural changes, citing the case of

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Comparing the labour market outcomes of Spanish, Polish and Nigerian migrants
Ebun Joseph

3 Evidence of racial stratification in Ireland: comparing the labour market outcomes of Spanish, Polish and Nigerian migrants Racial inequality in the labour market is not new in Ireland, Europe or anywhere in the world. What many grapple with is how best to represent these data. In the last decade the plight of Black workers, despite worsening across Europe, has almost fallen off the agenda and is subsumed under labels like ‘Diversity and inclusion’ in Ireland and ‘Widening participation’ in the UK. A racial hierarchy framework can make racial inequalities and

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Philip J. O’Connell

increase participation in society. Job loss may be associated with poverty, psychological distress and more general social exclusion. Less than 40 per cent of adult African nationals in Ireland are employed, far less than the average for Irish ‘natives’ or for other immigrant groups. 2 They also suffer much higher rates of unemployment than the national average. The pattern is similar in other European labour markets. This chapter explores the underlying reasons for African disadvantage in the Irish labour market. Previous research has generated a substantial body

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
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Racial stratification as a ‘default’ starting position
Ebun Joseph

questions then arise: can group members choose or change their racial categories? More importantly, how do members of the host community and newcomers know their categories? In Ireland, racial hierarchies exist where some are at the top and some at the bottom. Based on extensive empirical evidence from labour market outcomes of migrants in Ireland and analysis of semi-structured interviews, this chapter discusses the racial categorisation of migrants through a racial stratification framework and how it is experienced as a ‘default’ starting position by migrants. The key

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
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Ebun Joseph

Introduction Human societies are racially stratified; why is this and what are the implications? If migration is the reason for racial inequality in the labour market, then all persons of migrant background should have the same experience and economic outcome when comparing like with like. This is not, however, the case in Ireland nor in any other part of the Western world today. Neither has it been so for a very long time. Europe is a migratory hub; a milieu of intra- and inter-continental movement of people where every immigrant has to adjust to their new

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Ebun Joseph

8 Policing the racial order through the group favouritism continuum The pervasiveness of economic and racial inequalities is undeniable. It is evident from the whiteness of the top tiers of the labour market, to the escalating overt anti-migrant sentiments of right-wing nationalists, not overlooking the higher unemployment rate of Black workers compared with their White counterparts – in Ireland and across Europe. Despite the growing population of Europeans of Black African descent with credentials acquired in European institutions, many labour forces in the

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market