With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.
Disability and the labourmarket
People with disabilities face many barriers to full participation in society, not
least in the labourmarket. The extent and nature of participation in the labourmarket has a multitude of direct and indirect effects on living s tandards and
quality of life, underpinning the patterns of poverty and e xclusion discussed in
the previous chapter. Major differences in labourmarket outcomes are observed
between those affected by disability and others across the
countries – see Acemoglu
increase participation in society. Job loss may be associated with poverty, psychological distress and more general social exclusion.
Less than 40 per cent of adult African nationals in Ireland are employed, far less than the average for Irish ‘natives’ or for other immigrant groups. 2 They also suffer much higher rates of unemployment than the national average. The pattern is similar in other European labourmarkets. This chapter explores the underlying reasons for African disadvantage in the Irish labourmarket.
Previous research has generated a substantial body
Social reproduction of youth labourmarket inequalities
The social reproduction of youth labourmarket inequalities: the effects of
gender, households and ethnicity
Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mark Smith and Paola Villa
Young people have been disproportionately hit by the economic crisis. In
many European countries, unemployment rates have increased faster for
youth than for prime age groups (O’Reilly et al., 2015). Vulnerability to
the risks of poverty and precarious employment has been compounded by
increasing economic inequalities and the rise
Combating discrimination against immigrant workers
Multiple diversity in the labourmarket and
in the workplace: combating discrimination
against immigrant workers
Immigrants’ participation in the labourmarket is a fairly recent phen
omenon in Spain. The number of immigrant workers increased from
less than 200,000 in 1996 to more than 3,000,000 in 2007 (Ministerio
de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales; MTAS, 2007a). Immigrants are typically
employed in areas with a high need for labour, such as construction,
agriculture, the hotel business, house keeping and care for the elderly.
Immigration is mainly
Damian Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson, and Isabel Tavora
A new labourmarket segmentation approach
A new labourmarket segmentation
approach for analysing inequalities:
introduction and overview
Damian Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson and Isabel Tavora
There is a real need for a new multi-dimensional approach to understanding
inequalities in work and employment. Faced with the pressures of globalisation,
liberalisation of markets and periodic economic crises, many societies around
the world have forged fragile compromises that are fundamentally incompatible
with the goals of making the distribution of
This book brings together research relating to the economics of disability in Ireland. It addresses key questions of relevance to the economic circumstances of people with disabilities, with emphasis on the relationship between disability and social inclusion, poverty, the labour market, living standards and public policy. Importantly, it also incorporates a life cycle perspective on disability, considering issues of specific relevance to children, working-age adults and older people with disabilities. There is also a focus on issues relating to resource allocation and to wider society, while the book also presents a number of contributions focusing on mental health. The book examines the economics of mental health services and presents a broad overview of key economic issues facing the provision of such services in Ireland. A number of issues are addressed, including the nature and extent of mental illnesses in Ireland, the resources spent on care provided to people with mental illnesses, as well as the economic cost of mental illness in Ireland. The book also examines the socioeconomic determinants of mental stress. It focuses on socioeconomic factors which are most closely associated with mental stress, and considers the socioeconomic determinants of subjective well-being.
Immigration is relatively new in Spain, and hence government policies are struggling to manage the diversity it entails. This book examines the social conditions and political questions surrounding Spanish diversity, and gives a comprehensive view on how Spain is orienting its diversity management following a practical approach. It also examines specific immigrant nationalities, current institutional practices and normative challenges on how Spain is managing diversity. The mosque debate and the effects of the Danish Cartoon Affair on the traditional moros and cristianos festivals are explored. The book addresses the context of educational challenges related to immigration, and the policy approaches to the management of immigration-related diversity in education. It discusses policies and practices to combat discrimination in the labour market, with special reference to the transposition and implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives. The book looks at political participation and representation of immigrants by describing the public debate on voting rights, the legal framework and the various debates about the possibilities for granting immigrants voting rights. This is done through an analysis of the Foro para la Integracion de los Inmigrantes (FII), and the main characteristics of the management of immigrant associations by the City Councils of Madrid and Barcelona. The book concludes that Spain is a laboratory for diversities, with a 'practical philosophy' of diversity management within a complex identitarian, historical and structural context that limits policy innovation and institutional change.
This book examines women’s experiences of motherhood in England in the years between 1945 and 2000. Based on a new body of 160 oral history interviews, the book offers the first comprehensive historical study of the experience of motherhood in the second half of the twentieth century. Motherhood is an area where a number of discourses and practices meet. The book therefore forms a thematic study looking at aspects of mothers’ lives such as education, health care, psychology, labour market trends and state intervention. Looking through the prism of motherhood provides a way of understanding the complex social changes that have taken place in the post-war world. This book will be essential reading for students and researchers in the field of twentieth-century British social history. However it will also be of interest to scholars in related fields and a general readership with an interest in British social history, and the history of family and community in modern Britain.
Labour migration has become one of the hot topics in Europe, especially since 2000 with the shift from restriction to managed migration. This book provides an account of policy change over labour migration in Europe during this new era of governance. It has implications for debates about the contemporary governance of labour migration in Europe, and questions about the impact of an emergent EU migration regime in the context of a globalising labour market. The key findings offer a deeper understanding of the linkages between those engaged in policymaking and the kinds of communities that produce usable knowledge.