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George Philip

13 Latin America george philip It is possible to argue that Latin America is no more than a geographical expression, and that, rather than trying to generalize across a range of different countries, we need to focus on the history of the individual republics. Certainly there are significant differences within the region, and path dependency is a factor in determining particular political outcomes. However, there are important similarities within the region as well. All Latin American political systems are presidential. No Latin American country has achieved a

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Context, causes, characteristics and consequences
Barry Cannon

Introduction Populism is viewed by many as a negative concept. Donald Rumsfeld, one time United States Secretary for Defence under President George W. Bush, in a speech given in March 2006, expressed his concern about Latin Americans turning to ‘populist leadership … that clearly are worrisome’. Alejandro Toledo ex-president of Peru (2001–06) believes that ‘cheap empty populism is the danger to democracy’. 1 The Economist warns that ‘populists are leading Latin America down a blind alley’ 2 while British

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
Sean W. Burges

Latin America more broadly and South America specifically provide the platform on which Brazilian foreign policy architects positioned their main lever for attempting to shift structural power frameworks and the pursuit of their country’s particular brand of international insertion. Central to this has been a continental strategic reality particularly propitious for the consensual hegemonic style of leadership sought by Brazil over the last quarter century. While there have been occasional armed contretemps between South American states, the most serious

in Brazil in the world
Ana Longoni

Maoist imaginaries in Latin American art Ana Longoni In the 1960s, in a moment of extreme political tension, arguments between realism and the avant-garde were re-ignited in the Latin American art world. On the one hand, influential experimental movements were gaining momentum in several Latin American countries. On the other hand, a violent campaign in favour of socialist realism was unfolding as communists criticised maverick artists for being ‘ludic’ and ‘decadent’.1 But their criticism was not monolithic. Events such as the Cuban Revolution, the Chinese

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Clarice Greco, Mariana Marques de Lima, and Tissiana Nogueira Pereira

Introduction Upon the consolidation of television in 1960s, telenovelas 1 became the main cultural product in Brazil and all over Latin America – especially those produced by Globo – and achieved high ratings in prime-time slots. However, in recent years, another TV channel, Record TV, has been trying a different strategy, that of biblical telenovelas. Since 2010, Record TV has produced telenovelas and TV series alike which focus on biblical stories to attract new audiences. Up to 2017, biblical telenovelas Record TV broadcast included: A História de

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
Pastor Murillo and Esther Ojulari

150 Chapter 7 General Recommendation 34: a contribution to the visibility and inclusion of Afro-​descendants in Latin America Pastor Murillo and Esther Ojulari Introduction In a context of mestizo1 national identities and the ‘myth of racial democracy’,2 the issue of racial discrimination was largely denied in many Latin American countries for much of the twentieth century. Reflecting this, Afro-​descendants were an ‘invisible group’ within international law, with no specific norms or mechanisms responding to their particular rights claims until the twenty

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

This book explores contemporary urban experiences connected to practices of sharing and collaboration. Part of a growing discussion on the cultural meaning and the politics of urban commons, it uses examples from Europe and Latin America to support the view that a world of mutual support and urban solidarity is emerging today in, against, and beyond existing societies of inequality. In such a world, people experience the potentialities of emancipation activated by concrete forms of space commoning. By focusing on concrete collective experiences of urban space appropriation and participatory design experiments this book traces differing, but potentially compatible, trajectories through which common space (or space-as-commons) becomes an important factor in social change. In the everydayness of self-organized neighborhoods, in the struggles for justice in occupied public spaces, in the emergence of “territories in resistance,” and in dissident artistic practices of collaborative creation, collective inventiveness produces fragments of an emancipated society.

Populism and democracy in a globalised age
Author: Barry Cannon

The emergence of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela has revived analysis of one of Latin America's most enduring political traditions: populism. Yet Latin America has changed since the heyday of Perón and Evita. Globalisation, implemented through harsh IMF-inspired Structural Adjustment Programmes, has taken hold throughout the region, and democracy is supposedly the ‘only game in town’. This book examines the phenomenon that is Chávez within these contexts, assessing to what extent his government fits into established ideas on populism in Latin America. It also provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of Chávez's emergence, his government's social and economic policies, its foreign policy, as well as assessing the charges of authoritarianism brought against him. The book carries debate beyond current polarised views on the Venezuelan president, to consider the prospects of the new Bolivarian model surviving beyond its leader and progenitor, Chávez.

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The international relations of a South American giant
Author: Sean W. Burges

This book contributes to the construction of an integrated analysis of Brazilian foreign policy by focusing on the country's insertion into both the regional and global system over the roughly twenty-five years through to the end of Dilma's first term as president in 2014. An attempt is made to order the discussion through exploration of a series of themes, which are further broken down into key component parts. The first section presents the context, with chapters on institutional structures and the tactical behaviours exhibited by the country's diplomacy, which will be used to guide the analysis in subsequent chapters. The second focuses on issues, taking in trade policies, the rise of Brazilian foreign direct investment, security policy and multilateralism. Key relationships are covered in the final section, encompassing Latin America, the Global South, the US and China. A central contradiction is the clear sense that Brazilian foreign policy makers want to position their country as leader, but are almost pathologically averse to explicitly stating this role or accepting the implicit responsibilities. The recurrent theme is the rising confusion about what Brazil's international identity is, what it should be, and what this means Brazil can and should do. A repeated point made is that foreign policy is an important and often overloooked aspect of domestic policies. The Dilma presidency does hold an important place in the analytical narrative of this book, particularly with respect to the chapters on trade, Brazil Inc., security policy and bilateral relations with the US and China.