This book is an anthology of selections from works dealing with same-sex love, desire, sexual acts, and relationships during the period 1550-1735 in early modern England. It presents religious and moral writings, pseudo-medical writings, criminal pamphlets, travel writings, and letters on same-sex desire. The condemnation of male and female same-sex sexual acts is embedded in the earliest Christian theology. The early modern medical, pseudo-medical, and anatomical texts in Latin are surprisingly reticent about the physiological and anatomical aspects of homoerotic sexuality and desire. Canon law had long condemned male same-sex sexual acts. The 1533-34 statute in England forbade male same-sex sexual acts but ignored female same-sex intercourse. English travel narratives dealing with the sexual customs of other cultures often present sexual licentiousness as endemic, sometimes touching specifically on sodomy and tribadism. The most detailed presentations of same-sex erotic relationships in non-European cultures are those relating to Turkey and the Turkish seraglio. Familiar letters, such as between James I and VI, could reveal personal secrets and be radically transgressive in their emphasis on fostering love and desire. The book discusses homo-sexual subculture during 1700-1730, translation of Latin and Greek texts, and numerous literature representing male and female same-sex erotic relationships. The largely 'socially diffused homosexuality' of the seventeenth century changed profoundly with 'clothes, gestures, language' connoting 'homosexuality'. The book shows how literary genres of male same-sex and female-sex desires such as Shakespeare's Sonnets, and Catherine Trotter's Agnes de Castro allow the modern reader to chart changes in their representation.
Bartholomew’s was the church of the Augustinian priory and
it was closely, although not always harmoniously, associated with
St Bartholomew’s Hospital through their shared founder, Rahere.
The original Latintext was translated into Middle English when the
physical church was itself being translated into a new form. During
what is now known as the ‘Great Restoration’ of St Bartholomew’s
at the beginning of the fifteenth century, the priory church was
undergoing a major transformation: the east end of the church
was entirely remodelled, the parish chapel was extended, and
has presented that I have great pity for the servant. Mercy cries for mercy, and she will be heard first. I will do all she desires, and will reconcile her to Truth. 32
This is an argument about whose counsel is more persuasive. Peace urges her Father to listen to her counsel above that of her sisters, Truth and Justice. 33 Similarly, the heated nature of the argument – the rhetorical battle for the upper hand – is found in Grosseteste’s source material, the Latintext Rex et Famulus . There Iustitia is described as
derived from original Latintexts that began to arrive in numbers in
Wales around the tenth century. But Welsh terminology also tended to
mirror the form of English, as well as the original Latin, terms.
The Welsh-language terms surrounding humours, for example, are
clearly derived from Latin. Fleuma is the Welsh term for
phlegm, malencolia for melancholy, colera for choler
patient notes (in the present) with his retrospective rewriting, or of using borrowings which themselves used different tenses. I have mostly put texts into the past, except where the case for the use of the present has felt particularly strong.
Hall’s borrowings from Latintexts are shown in italics and their source identified at the foot of the appropriate page, but without indicating Hall’s omissions.
Some features of the translation need some explanation. Two relate to his patients’ socio-economic status. An unusual feature of Hall’s manuscript is his use of
2014 : 2–3). They also demonstrate his use of Latintexts to find therapies specifically intended for this age group. The Revd Walker’s six-month-old son ( Case 35 ) and two-year-old Lydia Trapp ( Case 114 ) both suffered from fits. They received similar treatments, with sliced peony roots hung round their necks, peony powder sprinkled in their hair and an ointment of Venice treacle and peony root applied over the heart. The source of the latter two treatments was Felix Platter’s Observationum . The case that these were borrowed from is headed Epilepsia in infante
Healing, reading, and perfection in the late-medieval household
. Wallis, pp. 485–92. The Latintext of the
Salernitan regimen can be found in The Prose Salernitan Questions, ed.
Brian Lawn (London: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 138. For the
history of the regimen, see Prioreschi, History of Medicine, pp. 266–72.
41 See Jake Walsh Morrissey, ‘ “To al indifferent”: The Virtues of
Lydgate’s “Dietary” ’, Medium Ævum, 84 (2015), 258–78 (264).
42 See ‘The Dietary: Introduction’, in Codex Ashmole 61: A Compilation
of Middle English Verse, ed. George Shuffelton (Kalamazoo: Medieval
This chapter explains that the Elizabethan grammar school education, which
Spenser and Shakespeare would have received, involved learning to read Latin
texts in Latin and to engage in double translation, i.e., sophisticated
exercises in translating from Latin to English and back again. Brink surveys
the unusually liberal education that Spenser would have received at Merchant
Taylors’ School and suggests that Richard Mulcaster influenced Spenser’s
decision to write in English. Mulcaster forcefully advocated educating the
lower classes and even supported educating women. In this chapter, the
reader is introduced to the typological reading encouraged by studying
Alexander Nowell’s Catechism. The reader is shown how typological reading is
likely to have influenced Spenser’s symbolism in Book I of the Faerie
have been neglected for too long, and those that place creative translations alongside original compositions. 1 The act of translating is the act of interpretation, and it can spark new engagements with material that is otherwise distant in time and experience.
This phenomenon is, of course, nothing new. Even the very first scholars who engaged with the riddles of early medieval England recognised the interaction between Old English and Latintexts. The chapters here thus remind us that the riddles were a multilingual tradition that spanned global networks in the
impossible to decipher because of the age of the original
manuscript. The Latintext which survives is virtually unpunctuated,
and in places the meaning somewhat opaque. That the preservation of
this important document has been so problematic is a sign of the
‘damnatio memoriae’ that overtook the pontificate of
Anacletus after the conclusion of the papal schism.]
[Your father, Roger I