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Life changes in England since 1700
Author: Hugh Cunningham

This book provides the first history of how we have imagined and used time since 1700. It traces the history of the relationship between work and leisure, from the 'leisure preference' of male workers in the eighteenth century, through the increase in working hours in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, to their progressive decline from 1830 to 1970. It examines how trade union action was critical in achieving the decline; how class structured the experience of leisure; how male identity was shaped by both work and leisure; how, in a society that placed high value on work, a 'leisured class' was nevertheless at the apex of political and social power – until it became thought of as 'the idle rich'. Coinciding with the decline in working hours, two further tranches of time were marked out as properly without work: childhood and retirement.

By the mid-twentieth century married men had achieved a work- leisure balance. In the 1960s and 1970s it was argued that leisure time would increase at a rapid rate. This false prediction coincided with the entry of married women into the labour market and a halt to the decline in working hours and in sectors of the economy a reversal of it. These two developments radically changed the experience of time and thinking about it. Time became equated with achieving a 'work-life balance' where 'life' was often unpaid childcare and domestic work.

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Louise A. Jackson and Angela Bartie

7 Commercial leisure If the institutions of home, school and workplace used techniques of temporal and spatial regulation to prevent ‘disorderly’ behaviour, what about young people’s ‘free’ time? As in the first half of the twentieth century ‘loafing’ on the streets continued to be discouraged, whilst membership of uniformed youth organisations and youth clubs was ubiquitously promoted as an antidote to increases in reported levels of youth offending. However, the postwar period also saw the demonisation – by police, media and some social workers – of new forms

in Policing youth
A transnational perspective

This collection of essays examines the history of urban leisure cultures in Europe in the transition from the early modern to the modern period. The volume brings together research on a wide variety of leisure activities which are usually studied in isolation: from theatre and music culture, art exhibitions, spas and seaside resorts, to sports and games, walking and cafés and restaurants. The book develops a new research agenda for the history of leisure by focusing on the complex processes of cultural transfer that were fundamental in transforming urban leisure culture from the British Isles to France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. How did new models of organising and experiencing urban leisure pastimes ‘travel’ from one European region to another? Who were the main agents of cultural innovation and appropriation? How did entrepreneurs, citizens and urban authorities mediate and adapt foreign influences to local contexts? How did the increasingly ‘entangled’ character of European urban leisure culture impact upon the ways men and women from various classes identified with their social, cultural or (proto)national communities?

Accessible and wide-ranging, this volume offers students and scholars a broad overview of the history of urban leisure culture in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. The agenda-setting focus on transnational cultural transfer will stimulate new questions and contribute to a more integrated study of the rise of modern urban culture.

Author: Brad Beaven

This book analyses the development of male leisure against the changing notions of citizenship which underpinned perceptions of British society during the period 1850-1945. It opens with an examination of the 'leisure' problem of the middle decades of the nineteenth century. After the defeat of Chartism and associated challenges to the employers' right to organise the workplace, factory owners, the clergy and philanthropists established schemes of rational recreation designed to attract and educate working-class males. The book explores how schemes of rational recreation attempted to create the model citizen and the impact of these strategies on male working-class leisure. Taking three influential leisure activities - drink, the music hall and association football - the book explores their impact on both concepts of citizenship and male leisure patterns. In addition, commercial leisure also highlighted the marked gender divides in leisure activities found within working-class households. The book investigates the generational issues that shaped male working-class leisure. The increase in non-apprenticed semi-skilled work, particularly in the 'new' industry regions, raised fears that monotonous working practices and new leisure activities were a dangerous social cocktail. Moreover the book investigates how, during the late Victorian and early Edwardian era, the problem of a 'degenerate' youth became entwined with anxieties over the future of empire. It further contextualises male leisure against the dominant concerns between 1918 and 1945. This era saw the suburbanisation of British cities, continued anxieties over male citizenry and increased international tensions that led to war.

Jane M. Adams

5 Water, health and leisure Visitors went to spas and hydropathic resorts for varied reasons; many patients travelled with relatives or friends and each individual had a unique experience, busy with different activities and treatment plans. Rest and relaxation were an integral part of therapeutic regimes, intended to offer sufficient diversion for the patient to put aside their everyday concerns and worries and to fill the hours not dedicated to treatment. Making a distinction between a health or leisure pursuit is complex, influenced by cultural context

in Healing with water
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Spare Time
Keith Beattie

Work and leisure: Spare Time 2 Alberto Cavalcanti, the film’s producer, called Spare Time ‘one of the best films the GPO ever made’ and Dai Vaughan, in his portrait of Stewart McAllister, calls the film ‘a curiously important [film] in the history of British documentary’.1 Jennings rejoined the GPO Film Unit just prior to making Spare Time, which was his first major film and the last major film of the GPO Film Unit before it became the Crown Film Unit late in 1940 under the auspices of the Films Division of the Ministry of Infor­ mation. This important though

in Humphrey Jennings
Laura Ugolini

•  7  • Consumption and leisure Introduction According to Harold Cossins, immediately after the declaration of war the ‘prices of foodstuffs, especially sugar, began to rise’ and his wife Marjorie ‘laid in a small stock before they went higher’. Later they heard that the government was prepared to ‘regulate the price of food if necessary’.1 Others also noted the disruption to the supply of consumer goods in the early weeks of war. Later in August Andrew Clark reported that ‘Mrs Egerton, Chatham Hall, Great Waltham’, had recently sent a smaller order than usual

in Civvies
Female education and the possibilities of domesticity
Richard De Ritter

4 ‘Leisure to be wise’: female education and the possibilities of domesticity [Women] have no such constraint upon their understandings; neither the necessity of earning their bread, nor the ambition to shine in public affairs, hurry or prejudice their minds: in domestic life they have leisure to be wise. Maria Edgeworth, Letters for Literary Ladies to Which is Added An Essay on the Noble Science of Self-Justification1 In 1791, Maria Edgeworth wrote to her Uncle, John Ruxton, from Clifton in Bristol, where her family were temporarily residing. Edgeworth

in Imagining women readers, 1789–1820
Hugh Cunningham

4 Leisure and class, 1750 –1850 I n the century between 1750 and 1850 there were two apparently contradictory processes at work. On the one hand, there seemed to be a concerted attack on popular leisure by the forces of authority (government, the law, the Church), egged on and reinforced by voluntary organisations and in tune with the wishes of employers. On the other, there is much evidence of a vibrant popular culture, with new forms of entertainment coming to the fore, and entrepreneurs both creating and responding to demand. Despite this there was a strong

in Time, work and leisure
More than just passing the time
Martin Atherton

9 Leisure in the deaf community: more than just passing the time When I set out on this research, I was seeking to answer some basic questions about deaf people, their community and the ways they interacted with each other. I knew this interaction was largely based in the network of deaf clubs to be found around the country but there was little evidence of what these communal activities involved or what importance deaf people placed upon them, other than some vague generalisations. I believe I have now found the answers to the questions I posed myself, in that I

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain