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Bombay and the Village in 1990s Women‘s Cinema
Rashmi Sawhney

This article examines the representation of Bombay in Aruna Raje‘s Rihaee (1988) and Sai Paranjpyes Disha (1990). It has been argued here that in both films, Bombay functions as a narrative anchor to the fictive village, which is depicted as the locus of Indian modernity. Symbolism of the village-city trope is used to reorganise the syntagm of modernity-location-gender in new relations of power and also to present alternative visions of national development within the socio-economic context of 1990s liberalisation in India. The dialectic between city and village in these films emphasises the role of memory and migration in women‘s cinema, and also serves as a means to probing the relationship between gender and films in the postcolonial context.

Film Studies
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Inside a continent’s communications revolution

Africa 2.0: Inside a continent’s communications revolution provides an important history of how two technologies – mobile calling and internet – were made available to millions of sub-Saharan Africans and the impact they have had on their lives. The book deals with the political challenges of liberalisation and privatisation that needed to be in place to get these technologies built. It analyses how the mobile phone fundamentally changed communications in sub-Saharan Africa and the ways Africans have made these technologies part of their lives. It examines critically the technologies’ impact on development practices and the key role development actors played in accelerating things like regulatory reform, fibre roll-out and mobile money. The book considers how corruption in the industry is a prism through which patronage relationships in government can be understood. The arrival of a start-up ecosystem has the potential to break these relationships and offer a new wave of investment opportunities. The author seeks to go beyond the hype to make a provisional assessment of the kinds of changes that have happened over three decades. It examines how and why these technologies became transformative and seem to have opened out a very different future for sub-Saharan Africa.

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Urban social movements in the Portuguese Revolution, 1974–75

The Portuguese Revolution of 1974-1975 was a critical juncture in the second half of the European twentieth century. It was the first in a series of authoritarian collapses that would bring the whole of western and central Europe into liberal democracy, and the so-called Revolution of the Carnations was also many other things. This book is the first in-depth study of the widest urban movement of the European post-war period, an event that shook the balance of Cold War politics by threatening the possibility of revolution in Western Europe. The Socialist Party (PS) and the Popular Democratic Party (PPD) set about dismantling the idea that there had popular movement embodying the possibility of different society. A significant policy shift in the field of housing lay the foundations for a change in the relations and meanings of urban citizenship. Popular mobilisation over the summer and autumn of 1974 was key in undermining a project of limited liberalisation and strengthening the hand of those in Armed Forces Movement (MFA) and civilian parties. After the April 1975 elections, the conflicting claims between revolutionary and electoral legitimacy, between the street and the ballot box, created an increasingly polarised atmosphere, and claims of imminent coups and plots were discussed. The Lisbon urban social movement did not disappear on 25 November 1975. Exploring the origins, trajectory and demise of the urban movement in Lisbon has been a way to question and revisit the role of popular collective actors in Portugal's revolution and transition to democracy.

The case of International Financial Services, London
Craig Berry

Committee on Invisible Exports. It formalised relationships between governmental and private sector (primarily City-based) actors, evolving into the Committee on Liberalisation of Trade in Services, which today forms a distinct portion of the IFSL structure. The Committee on Liberalisation of Trade in Services is chaired by senior IFSL figure John Cooke, a government official for three decades until 1997. In addition to its relationship with the British establishment, IFSL’s main lobbying activities are at the international level. IFSL lobbies EU policy-makers, including

in Globalisation and ideology in Britain
Anna K. Dickson

liberalisation (and the conclusion of regional and sub-regional partnership agreements) rather than any other option for the future of its relations with the ACP, and in stark contrast to previous policies. The working hypothesis is that the EU has committed itself publicly to trade liberalisation for a number of reasons. In part this occurred as a result of external pressures – for example to reform the CAP – which increased during the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. The Commission is keen to be seen to be moving in the right direc42 EUD3 10/28/03 2:41 PM Page 43 The

in EU development cooperation
Russell Southwood

This chapter looks at the opening up of communications markets to privately owned companies (known as liberalisation) and the privatisation of state-owned monopoly telecommunications companies that brought large-scale investment into Africa to create mobile voice networks. This was both a political and a legal challenge. What follows describes how market liberalisation and privatisation pitted the inefficient state telecoms behemoths against new mobile market challengers, with the latter introducing innovations like pre-paid calling. It

in Africa 2.0
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Catherine Moury
Stella Ladi
Daniel Cardoso
, and
Angie Gago

and summarises the main findings. September 2008–November 2010: before the bailout When speaking to Ministers about the crisis in Ireland, it was repeatedly emphasised that Ireland was primarily a victim of the 2007–2008 credit crunch, unlike other bailout countries, whose economies were only peripherally or tangentially linked to the broader global financial crisis. 2 The Irish economic growth model was based on the Anglo-American vision of liberalised

in Capitalising on constraint
Liberalism and liberalisation in the niche of nature, culture, and technology
Regenia Gagnier

limits and contingency of one’s own perspective. This chapter will consider some implications for Victorian Studies suggested by recent developments in the fields of world literatures and globalisation studies. It will draw attention to the global scope of Victorian literature as an actant in world affairs, as in processes of liberalisation, democratisation, and trade, but also to the specificity of each local environment and moment of transculturation. It hopes to make a methodological intervention on behalf of

in Interventions
Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

Ireland, and the Ministry of Economy in Luxembourg. Yet despite the ‘difficult’ nature of cultural policy as a field of integration, the governance of the policy sector has increasingly shifted towards the European level. Perhaps even more surprisingly yet, EU-level intervention in the cultural sector has essentially initiated the liberalisation of cultural industries’ markets. Even when legislative solutions were agreed upon by member states, the latter essentially furthered the economic liberalisation of the cultural sector and imposed only minimal common standards

in The European Union and culture
From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization
Sagarika Dutt

www.planningcommission. Planning Commission, Government of India, 2001, Approach Paper to the Tenth Five-Year Plan, Government of India, New Delhi, available at www.planningcommission. Economic development Rothermund, D. (ed.), 1996, Liberalising India: Progress and Problems, Manohar, New Delhi. Seth, S., 1993,‘ “Nehruvian socialism”, 1927–1937: nationalism, Marxism and the pursuit of modernity’, Alternatives 18. Swamy, D. S., 1994, The Political Economy of Industrialisation from Self-Reliance to Globalization, Sage, London. Teltumbde, A., ‘Impact

in India in a globalized world