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The Urban Gothic of Fin-de-Siècle London and Gotham City
Erica McCrystal

Gothic literature set in fin-de-siècle London has often been argued to highlight duality. However, the urban Gothic truly flourishes through its liminality, which allows chaos and order to coexist. Texts such as Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray offer versions of a Gothic London that have the appearance of structure but are difficult to navigate. Likewise, the Batman franchise has embraced Gotham City as a setting that provides tensions between order and chaos. In Gotham, as in fin-de-siècle London, liminality puts pressures on apparent boundaries. While the urban Gothic initially developed through nineteenth century British texts, modern-day comics and films within the Batman franchise have allowed us to see how a multiverse normalises liminality and embraces multiple works to speak collectively about Gothic tensions. This article analyses the liminal nature of the urban Gothic in both cities side by side to argue that the urban Gothic’s liminal nature allows instability to reign.

Gothic Studies
Wolfgang Müller-Funk

Introduction This chapter presents a modified understanding of borders and boundaries. Liminality, a term created by the anthropologist Victor Turner ( 1964; 1977 ), is seen as an umbrella term that refers to various aspects of constructing relations between individuals, as well as between groups and collectives. Liminal phenomena are not limited to visible barriers, but also include invisible constellations. Moreover, borders and boundaries are not simply spatial issues, but always entail temporary and dynamic moments

in Border images, border narratives
Nazima Kadir

-motion car wreck would speed up … If I went to the drowning man the drowning man would pull me under. I couldn’t be his life raft (Flynn 2004 : 10–11). I begin this chapter with this quote because it captures the fluidity between marginality and centrality in an activist’s biography and how social movement subcultures serve as a space for liminal adolescence. Flynn, a renowned American poet, first met his father while working at a homeless shelter. The memoir features two parallel

in The autonomous life?
Johanna Kramer

this motif, 1 is a distinctly Anglo-Saxon innovation that first appears early in the eleventh century in a group of insular manuscript illuminations, spreads to the Continent by the twelfth century and across western Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 2 The figure of the disappearing Christ introduces a particularly ‘liminal’ way of depicting the Ascension by focusing on the moment when Christ crosses from earth into heaven. Moreover, the feet in the visual iconography invite a comparative reading with the footprints of Christ in the Old English

in Between earth and heaven
Paul Darby, James Esson, and Christian Ungruhe

realities of a highly competitive and commercialised industry and a tension between the interests of these powerful actors and those of the player. This tension is visible in both Europe and South-East Asia. In this way, players moving to these destinations share similar experiences of a challenging liminality. Regardless of the type of route pursued or the destination, negotiating and navigating a first migratory move beyond Africa does not just constitute a transient moment of uncertainty but can also become a precarious state of ‘in-between’ that may last several

in African football migration
Markus Oppolzer

adversaries are keen to subject them completely to their own spheres of influence. Most Gothic characters have to face the threat of becoming permanently lost in the liminal sphere, a situation described by Victor Turner in his seminal study of the transitions from one social state to another: The attributes of liminality or of liminal

in Alan Moore and the Gothic Tradition
Andrekos Varnava

scheme. The initial delays in starting the scheme threatened recruitment (which was the main concern for the authorities) and caused many hardships for the recruits and their families (as seen by Bolton’s stinging statements). In this sense Homi Bhabha’s ‘liminal space’ in which ‘negotiation’ can take place between colonised and coloniser, seems applicable, even if dominated by the coloniser. 2

in Serving the empire in the Great War
Exploring Nineteenth-Century Polar Gothic Space
Katherine Bowers

This article considers a unified polar Gothic as a way of examining texts set in Arctic and Antarctic space. Through analysis of Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Shelleys Frankenstein, and Poe‘s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket , the author creates a framework for understanding polar Gothic, which includes liminal space, the supernatural, the Gothic sublime, ghosts and apparitions, and imperial Gothic anxieties about the degradation of civilisation. Analysing Verne‘s scientific-adventure novel The Adventures of Captain Hatteras (1866) with this framework, the author contextualises the continued public interest in the lost Franklin expedition and reflects on nineteenth-century polar Gothic anxieties in the present day. Polar space creates an uncanny potential for seeing ones own self and examining what lies beneath the surface of ones own rational mind.

Gothic Studies
A Response to the Journal of Humanitarian Affairs Special Issue on Innovation in Humanitarian Action (JHA, 1:3)
Anna Skeels

fronts. There is no scope to do full justice to each of these here, hence I aim to provide some preliminary reflections to open up further debate. Hunt (2018) has suggested that humanitarian innovation occupies a ‘liminal space’: not clearly ‘bounded and regulated’ like research or standard humanitarian practice, but something ‘in-between’. This consideration helps him to focus attention on the ethics of humanitarian innovation (to which I will return later). More broadly, from this complex positioning, other issues and tensions can arise. The question of what kind

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

the complexities of the brokerage work conducted by Congolese MSF staff working in a ‘field’ that is not a distant, liminal space, but their country (and region) of origin. They have complicated and heterogeneous political and social histories, networks and perceived identities in the areas where MSF works. This ‘proximity’ is a double-edged sword: local staff are essential to networking with armed actors and political authorities, as well as translating the meanings of policies and principles into practice, yet they find themselves either at risk, or perceived as a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs