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Bryce Evans

states in wartime, the government assumed extraordinary power over the very bodies of the general public, not least because the national food supply assumed paramount importance. To highlight the wartime importance of dietary concerns, this chapter addresses public health issues in neutral Ireland during the Emergency through the prism of diet and the lower-class Irish body. For

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
Representations of Lower-Class Voices in Ann Radcliffe’s Novels
Reema Barlaskar

This paper investigates lower-class voices within the context of anti-Gothic criticism, using Ann Radcliffe’s novels and early Gothic critic Joseph Addison’s essays to highlight the ways in which Radcliffe reassigns value to the Gothic aesthetic. It further emphasizes Radcliffe’s reconfiguration of domestic roles as she positions patriarchal figures as anti-Gothic critics, the heroine as reader of gothic narratives, and lowerclass voices and tales as gothic texts. The Mysteries of Udolpho and Romance of the Forest subvert critical discourse and its motif of servants’ contagious irrationality. In Radcliffe’s novels, ‘vulgar’ narratives as superstitious discourse do not spread fear to susceptible heroines, embodiments of bourgeois virtue, but demonstrate the ways in which fear is a construct of patriarchal discourse. Servants and country people, in turn, construct a pedagogy for reading gothic texts that permit heroines to deconstruct metaphors of ghostly haunting embedded in their tales and resist patriarchal hegemony and interpretative authority over gothic texts.

Gothic Studies
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Elizabeth Stuart Phelps‘s Kentucky‘s Ghost (1868)
Jen Baker

Elizabeth Stuart Phelps‘s Gothic short story Kentucky‘s Ghost (1868) is amongst the most distinctive of ghost-child narratives to be published in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This is owing, foremost, to its unique topographical and social setting; taking place at sea amongst an all-male crew of mostly lower-class sailors, rather than in the large suburban or rural house of middle or upper-class families that were typical of this Anglo-American literary sub-genre. This article considers the child-figure in Phelpss tale within intersecting frameworks: firstly, within a tradition of nautical folklore that is integral to producing the tales Gothic tone. Secondly, within a contemporary context of frequently romanticised depictions of child-stowaways in literature, but a reality in which they were subjected to horrific abuse. Finally, her tale is discussed as a reformist piece that, despite its singularities, draws on darker versions of literary and folkloric dead-child traditions to produce a terrifying tale of retribution.

Gothic Studies
Thomas Prosser

, introducing reforms which narrowed wealth inequalities and secured lower-class commitment to capitalism. Class compromise was reflected in the support base of social-democratic parties, comprising industrial workers and public sector professionals. Across the West, certain supporters of national populism and the new left claim that their movements are social-democratic. This is problematic, for reasons outlined in relevant chapters; few scholars would place these movements in the social-democratic tradition. Despite historic ability to reconcile different interests

in What’s in it for me?
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The horrors of class in Eric Kripke’s Supernatural
Julia M. Wright

hierarchy: the blue-collar work ethic and its attendant construction of stoic masculinity that will accept hardship; lack of access to education and more generally to cultural capital; and the comic type of the lower-class buffoon, a tradition that can be traced back to Shakespeare’s plays. For instance, the official website for My Name Is Earl remarked on Earl’s “seemingly limited intelligence” and his

in Men with stakes
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Kate Bowan and Paul A. Pickering

’s labour song Song of the ‘Lower Classes’. In certain ways they can be understood as representative of different song types, with very different relationships between words and music, orality and notation. The Marseillaise was written literally overnight at a crucial moment in the French revolutionary wars. Although it began its life as a fully notated, patriotic war song, it was soon to become

in Sounds of liberty
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Helena Ifill

’s depiction of social hierarchy. Both the affluent upper-​class Sir Rupert Lisle and the poor lower-​class James Arnold begin as unappealing children with several disagreeable, and apparently hereditary, personality traits. They also happen to resemble each other to the extent that the villain, Major Varney, kidnaps Rupert and persuades James’s disreputable father to let him present James, some years later, to Rupert’s mother Claribel as her missing son in order to take advantage of Rupert’s inheritance. Rupert is taken away to be raised as an orphan in a middle

in Creating character
A. Martin Wainwright

Asians and Africans. For much of the period between the Indian Rebellion and the First World War, these organisations cooperated in helping lower-class Indians. At the same time, they also formed an often uneasy alliance with the India Office as their missions to assist and proselytise Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs, converged with and diverged from the desire of British

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
Jean R. Brink

background; they advocated educating the lower classes and, some, like Richard Mulcaster, Spenser's very liberal schoolmaster, supported teaching women as well as men. In his Utopia (1516), Thomas More, noteworthy for having educated his daughters, envisions an educated society in which all classes study literature. Under Henry VIII, there was concern about extending literacy to the lower classes. In the Act of 1543 for the Advancement of True

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
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Police, people and social control in Cape Town
Bill Nasson

‘respectable’ character would be able to exercise their duties effectively, according to Maloney. 4 Such particularistic – and starry eyed – representations of the Cape Town police, and popular understandings of their relations with lower-class inhabitants, are undoubtedly essential to any historical appreciation of the colonial locus and colonial texture of maintaining law and order in the city. For what one

in Policing the empire