The British case, 1750–1900
Author: Eric Richards

Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

John Walter

population growth. The argument here will be that, while the threat of famine has been exaggerated, the possible defences against that threat have been largely unexplored and, consequently, underestimated. In particular, there has been an uncritical use of the ambiguous evidence for famine offered by literary sources. The evidence thus derived has been married with what we might term a Malthusian model of social and economic change, which exaggerates the depth of poverty in early modern England and, therefore, the extent of vulnerability to famine. This model, in its turn

in Crowds and popular politics in early modern England
Eric Richards

ladder; meanwhile the ‘push’ factor was more decisive for those at the bottom of the rural ladder. But, as Hallas says, ‘many chose to accept a lower standard of living rather than leave the area’, and this was clearly a vital choice. Out-migration from Swaledale was not replenished in the Malthusian model, but there was a clear enough tendency for some of the pre-industrial forms of local occupation to

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Phillipp R. Schofield

output per capita. 19 Brenner detects a rejection of pre-existing models, especially the Malthusian model associated for medieval England with M.M. Postan, in favour of this leap to accept market expansion as the corner-stone of economic change. While, in fact and as we will consider in more detail later in this chapter, historians of medieval England have been more willing to describe the market and its activity than to locate it in models of long-term economic change, Brenner is right to note this significant change in focus. In seeking to locate the market within

in Peasants and historians
Neil Macmaster

with her developmental model, did not address the issue of a political solution, or relate Muslim women to the question of nationalism or independence, but rather provided the answers through an economic and modernising agenda. Algerian women were viewed in global terms, in relation to a Malthusian model, as rapid breeders of babies. The solution to the inevitable process of pauperisation was not birth control, a practice that was seen as a ‘cruel joke’ within the logic of an ‘archaic agricultural civilisation’,36 but rather universal education. Tillion estimated

in Burning the veil