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Three case studies
Author: Richard Hillman

This book explores English tragedy in relation to France with a frank concentration on Shakespeare. Three manifestations of the 'Shakespearean tragic' are singled out: Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra and All's Well That Ends Well, a comedy with melancholic overtones whose French setting is shown to be richly significant. Hamlet has occasioned many books on its own, including a recent study by Margreta De Grazia, Hamlet without Hamlet, whose objective is to free the text from the 'Modern Hamlet'. The influence of Michel de Montaigne on Hamlet is usually assumed to have left its traces in more or less precise verbal or intellectual correspondences. The book proposes two further sources of French resonance accessible to auditors of the ultimate early modern English tragedy. It talks about two French Antonies. One is the steadfast friend of Caesar and avenging Triumvir, as heralded in Jacques Grévin's César and vividly evoked in Robert Garnier's Porcie. The other is the hedonist who ruins himself for Cleopatra, as first brought on stage in France by Étienne Jodelle in Cléopâtre captive, then substantially fleshed out in Garnier's own Marc Antoine. The distance between the tragedies and All's Well comes down to the difference between horizontal and vertical lifeless bodies. When he grafted the true-to-life histoire tragique of Hélène of Tournon onto the fairy-tale of Giletta of Narbonne, Shakespeare retained the latter's basic family situation. Shakespeare's Helena succeeds where the King has failed by exploiting her position as an outsider.

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Spenser, Donne, and the trouble of periodization
Yulia Ryzhik

received its fullest enunciation belatedly, in Robert Fludd’s Utriusque Cosmi . Allen G. Debus (ed.), Robert Fludd and His Philosophicall Key: Being a Transcription of the Manuscript at Trinity College, Cambridge (New York: Science History Publications, 1979). 22 Margreta de Grazia, ‘Fin-de-Siècle Renaissance England’, in Elaine Scarry (ed.), Fins de Siècle: English Poetry in 1590, 1690, 1790, 1890, 1990 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 37–63, shows that historical periodization by century (which in the 1590s could

in Spenser and Donne
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Joshua Davies

temporal complexities of cultural production and subject formation. So while the methodology of this book is defined by historicist readings of the texts with which I work, this book is also a study of untimeliness, an investigation of cultural productions bereft of their original context. The line drawn between the Middle Ages and modernity carries great cultural significance. For some critics it marks the birth of the individual,2 for others the birth of the nation,3 for some the beginning of historical consciousness.4 As Margreta de Grazia writes, there is an

in Visions and ruins
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Stephen Orgel

? None of this bears on the more basic question, the first question students ask, of why Hamlet is not king to begin with. Why did he not he succeed his father? In a provocative recent reading of the play, Margreta de Grazia makes this the missing key: he has been disinherited, in violation of every expectation. This, not his father’s death and his mother’s o’er-hasty marriage, is

in Spectacular Performances
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Elisabeth Chaghafi

research in Shakespeare criticism. For example, Margreta de Grazia’s Shakespeare Verbatim and Andrew Murphy’s Shakespeare in Print both make a persuasive case for the impact of late eighteenth-century Shakespeare editions on the development of both Shakespeare criticism and the perception of Shakespeare as an author figure. While a lot of emphasis has of course been placed on the impact of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century editions, the idea of ‘Shakespeare’ conveyed by early modern editions has also become the subject of investigation. This is reflected in new

in English literary afterlives
Spenser’s Busirane and Donne’s ‘A Valediction of my name, in the window’
Yulia Ryzhik

inscription with a philosophy of the senses and the passions. Margreta de Grazia’s brilliant essay on the philosophical and gendered implication of early modern ‘imprinting’ shows how metaphors of imprinting – from the wax stamped with a signet to moveable type – figured the operations of the mind and sexual reproduction. The two aspects were complexly intertwined, with the metaphorics of generation or cognition materializing and mechanizing textual reproduction. 26 We can witness a cognate process in the incision of graphic characters, which inscribe marks with a

in Spenser and Donne
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The sense of early modern writing
Mark Robson

, art and in particular literature have often been best described as revealing and being powerful ways in which we make sense of the world. But that does not separate them from that world. As Margreta de Grazia notes: ‘language is a material medium to be experienced like the rest of the material world through the senses’. 16 Reading must, then, as she puts it, look at rather than see through early modern

in The sense of early modern writing
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Size matters
Deanne Williams

. Stephen Orgel, ‘Gendering the Crown’, in Subject and Object in Renaissance Culture , edited by Margreta de Grazia, Maureen Quilligan, and Peter Stallybrass (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 133–165, p. 155. 7. See Strong, Portraits of Queen Elizabeth

in Goddesses and Queens
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Richard Hillman

, beginning with the first and longest. Less excuse for prolixity may be needed in the case of Hamlet, which has, of course, occasioned many books on its own. These include a recent study by Margreta De Grazia, Hamlet without Hamlet (2006), whose objective is to free the text from the ‘Modern Hamlet’ – the daunting and inhibiting burden of significance that has accrued over the centuries to its central

in French reflections in the Shakespearean tragic
Shakespeare and Scott
Lidia Garbin

’s lameness from sonnets 37 and 89. See for instance Margreta de Grazia, Shakespeare Verbatim: The Reproduction of Authenticity and the 1790 Apparatus (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), p. 156. 24 Schoenbaum, Shakespeare’s Lives , p. 114. 25

in Shakespeare and Scotland