Writing the MarianReformation
I have in my hands the chief thing that Christ gave me for your salvation … I have
the very special law of mankind. For there is need of this special law if you are to
attain your salvation. This special law, however, is such that God did not even grant
it to the angels who had sinned. But why do I delay in showing this? First of all, do
penance! (Reginald Pole, De Unitate Ecclesiastica, 1536)1
ardinal Pole regarded the Henrician Reformation as both a crime and a
scandal. Not only did it make the English Church
This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.
of the Henrician,
Edwardian and MarianReformations. Cecil’s polemical strategy in The Execution
of Justice in England is to deny the applicability of a confessional discourse to
Elizabethan culture. This argument is made at the level of content but also
form. The Execution of Justice in England constructs Elizabeth’s regime as nonconfessional and this representation is supported by the tone of Cecil’s tract,
which eschews Reformation polemics. Cecil resists the temptation to deploy
such labels as papists and popery. This is partly to avoid the danger of appearing
-one parishes studied by Hutton only seventeen seem to have demolished
By the end of Edward’s reign, St Martin in the Fields could claim to be a truly
Protestant church, both in its services and appearance. But the religious demands of
the government were about to change dramatically.
The MarianReformation and its aftermath
The death of Edward VI on 6 July 1553 and the accession of his Catholic sister Mary
meant the reversal of many changes introduced during the Protestant king’s reign.
Westminster in particular was at the centre of the restoration of