This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the
less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525
BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country.
This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt,
declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten
years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred
years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a
half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s
independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central
government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and
Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted
foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt
recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in
culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a
high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient
Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the
period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements
in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.
slavery, which, in one form or another, was ubiquitous throughout the
Muslim world; and of sexual licence, the latter rooted in the early
polemics of Christian schoolmen. 6
To take slavery first, by the end of the sixteenth century
confrontation between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterraneanworld
was characterised by raids upon each other’s shores, piracy and
the capture of, and the trafficking in
, customs dues collected and goods more readily distributed to the
Egyptian hinterland. Imports to Egypt comprised commodities such as metals,
wood, wine and oil, while exports included grain, natron and manufactured
goods, such as amulets, scarabs and perfume flasks (Figure 8.1). Some of these
goods were produced in local workshops at Naukratis, and their finds in territories
as far afield as the Levant, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and countries to the west of
Egypt chart the wide range of trading networks that linked Egypt with the
The Phoenicians were the
between slavers and enslaved who didn’t understand each other’s languages. In this parable, even members of the same family or household or city are complete strangers to each other: adults and newly ‘arrived’ infants who don’t speak the same languages. In the context of slavery there are obvious parallels, except that the ‘arrival’ is forced and presupposes coming from some other part of the sea.
Modes of slavery in the Mediterraneanworld
Slavery was widespread and integral to the early modern Mediterranean, most directly affecting many millions of slaves but
another across the spectrum of renegades, providing some of the keys to comprehending the workings of a Mediterraneanworld configured not only by political and religious parameters but also by ubiquitous liquid frontiers and perpetual movement. Given the near absence of texts written by renegades, and hence their virtual lack of self-representation except when under interrogation by the Inquisition, we have to rely on texts that were often very hostile towards them. Precisely because of this, I strive to take into account the full range of sources available – rather
This chapter looks into the portrayals of Christian martyrdom in Muslim lands. This was not reciprocal because there were virtually no Muslim martyrs at this time. Christian martyrdom in Muslim territories has to be understood within the visceral rivalry between Catholics and Protestants in Europe whereby the martyrs of one side were the heretics of the other. Catholics looked especially to Muslim territories in order to produce fresh martyrs, their main strategy being to convince renegades to revert to Christianity and proclaim this loudly, thus giving the Muslim authorities little choice but to execute them for apostasy. Some martyrs had no desire to be martyrs, others desired martyrdom, and from these categories a few were able to perform their own martyrdom as expected. Others were executed for trying to kill their masters and escape, but were likewise considered martyrs. Of special interest are cases where a particular act of ‘martyrdom’ is told from radically different points of view, e.g. by a Muslim, a Catholic and a Protestant. Cruelty was widely practised throughout the Mediterranean world during this time, without any religion having a monopoly over it.
In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.
Outlines of the Mediterranean
‘The Mediterranean speaks with many voices; it is a sum of individual histories’, writes Fernand Braudel in his magnum opus on the Mediterraneanworld of the later sixteenth century (1: 13), a work that generously allows us to hear many voices. My strategy in this book consists in part of being attentive to writing and speaking in the early modern Mediterraneanworld, to how people characterised the modalities of relationships and communicability of that world across ethnic, religious, geographical, linguistic and racial
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what
did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the
Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the
three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual
evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact
which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on
intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy
and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of
the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink,
excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the
soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the
Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in
works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a
frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy.
The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental
and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success
in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not
undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the
roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of
convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions
about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to
affect human bodies and health.