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Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

John Chircop

8 Quarantine, sanitisation, colonialism and the construction of the ‘contagious Arab’ in the Mediterranean, 1830s–1900 John Chircop Introduction This chapter seeks to investigate quarantines – their set-up and sanitisation procedures – much as others have discussed other medical/hygienist institutions, in terms of their links with contemporary structures of power, mainly in connection with Western European colonial expansion in the southern and eastern littoral of the Mediterranean during the nineteenth century. As the growing volume of literature on the

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power
John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez

Introduction Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez Histories and memories of quarantine – the well-known collective practice of defence against epidemic disease that acquired global reach in modern times – still lead back to the Mediterranean, the region which gave birth to this institution in fourteenth-century Italian city-states and embedded its evolution up until our present days. Sometimes it is the word itself, derived from the Venetian dialect quaranta giorni (forty days) and appropriated

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain
Lisa Rosner

even ‘empire’. Instead, it is most probable that they would have referred to the professional ethics that required them to stay with their patients and with their ship. This chapter will further argue that naval experience in the Mediterranean was crucial to the formation of this professional identity, particularly with respect to quarantine regulations. Young British medical officers during the first decades of the nineteenth century acquired their first experience of quarantine and contagious diseases through the Mediterranean ports of Gibraltar and Malta. This

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Malika Ezzahidi

4 Quarantine in Ceuta and Malta in the travel writings of the late eighteenthcentury Moroccan ambassador Ibn Uthmân Al-Meknassî Malika Ezzahidi Introduction Interest in public health on the southern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea began to decline by the end of what is considered as the golden age of medieval Islamic medicine between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries. Before this occurred, hospitals (bîmâristâns) had played a central role in the treatment of the sick in major Islamic cities.1 In the case of Morocco, for example, Marrakech and Fez

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Enrico Pugliese

10  Enrico Pugliese International migrations and the Mediterranean Introduction: the Mediterranean migration scene and its evolution In recent decades the Mediterranean has witnessed an expansion of the migration routes and exchanges taking place within its shores and a parallel modification of the actors involved, of the areas where the most relevant processes occur, and of the economic, political and military drivers that activate the movements and determine the direction of travel. Within this frame migrations are at the same time the effects of events that

in Western capitalism in transition
Eve Hepburn

3446 Using Europe 16/4/10 12:12 Page 143 5 Sardinian autonomy in the Mediterranean Introduction Sardinia has been largely ignored by scholars of nationalism and regionalism. This is not because territorial claims have omitted independence, or have shunned ‘nationalist’ parlance (as in Bavaria), but because Sardinian nationalism has failed to pose a major threat to the territorial integrity of the Italian state or to catalyse any constitutional reforms, in contrast to the Lega Nord. In fact, many scholars might argue that Sardinian nationalism has already

in Using Europe
Elisabeth van Houts

the mercenaries may have begun to take advantage of the endemic internal strife by claiming lordships for themselves, as in Aversa, with the intention of remaining in Italy. The fertility of Campania, the area on the Mediterranean coast around Naples, with its vineyards, fruit trees, springs and plains, was an important aspect of the Normans’ wish to settle permanently. 10 The settlement of Normans

in The Normans in Europe
Hakim Abderrezak

13 Harragas in Mediterranean illiterature and cinema Hakim Abderrezak Refugees and migrants: all in the same boat A three-year-old lies face down on the shore of the Ali Hoca Burnu beach in Bodrum, Turkey. This photograph, showing the lifeless body of young Syrian Aylan Kurdi appeared in European and Turkish newspapers, circulated on social networks, and moved a huge number of media users. Commentators have speculated that this image effected a noticeable shift in public opinion about Mediterranean Sea crossings from the Middle East and Africa. Initially, the

in Reimagining North African Immigration
Costas Tsiamis,, Eleni Thalassinou, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou and Angelos Hatzakis

This chapter seeks to present a case study of public health in a colonial context by focusing on the organisation of lazarettos in the British Protectorate of the Ionian Islands (1815–64). The British inherited these quarantine structures from the Venetians and, nothwithstanding their anticontagionist discourse, consolidated all quarantine facilities which they found. Quarantine was important not only for colonial rule on the Islands but also in terms of British seaborne power in the Mediterranean. By focusing on quarantine in the Ionian Islands we can come to

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914