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Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

Gavin R.G. Hambly

slavery, which, in one form or another, was ubiquitous throughout the Muslim world; and of sexual licence, the latter rooted in the early polemics of Christian schoolmen. 6 To take slavery first, by the end of the sixteenth century confrontation between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean world was characterised by raids upon each other’s shores, piracy and the capture of, and the trafficking in

in Asia in Western fiction
Roger Forshaw

, customs dues collected and goods more readily distributed to the Egyptian hinterland. Imports to Egypt comprised commodities such as metals, wood, wine and oil, while exports included grain, natron and manufactured goods, such as amulets, scarabs and perfume flasks (Figure 8.1). Some of these goods were produced in local workshops at Naukratis, and their finds in territories as far afield as the Levant, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and countries to the west of Egypt chart the wide range of trading networks that linked Egypt with the Mediterranean world. The Phoenicians were the

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

between slavers and enslaved who didn’t understand each other’s languages. In this parable, even members of the same family or household or city are complete strangers to each other: adults and newly ‘arrived’ infants who don’t speak the same languages. In the context of slavery there are obvious parallels, except that the ‘arrival’ is forced and presupposes coming from some other part of the sea. Modes of slavery in the Mediterranean world Slavery was widespread and integral to the early modern Mediterranean, most directly affecting many millions of slaves but

in Frontier narratives
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

another across the spectrum of renegades, providing some of the keys to comprehending the workings of a Mediterranean world configured not only by political and religious parameters but also by ubiquitous liquid frontiers and perpetual movement. Given the near absence of texts written by renegades, and hence their virtual lack of self-representation except when under interrogation by the Inquisition, we have to rely on texts that were often very hostile towards them. Precisely because of this, I strive to take into account the full range of sources available – rather

in Frontier narratives
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

This chapter looks into the portrayals of Christian martyrdom in Muslim lands. This was not reciprocal because there were virtually no Muslim martyrs at this time. Christian martyrdom in Muslim territories has to be understood within the visceral rivalry between Catholics and Protestants in Europe whereby the martyrs of one side were the heretics of the other. Catholics looked especially to Muslim territories in order to produce fresh martyrs, their main strategy being to convince renegades to revert to Christianity and proclaim this loudly, thus giving the Muslim authorities little choice but to execute them for apostasy. Some martyrs had no desire to be martyrs, others desired martyrdom, and from these categories a few were able to perform their own martyrdom as expected. Others were executed for trying to kill their masters and escape, but were likewise considered martyrs. Of special interest are cases where a particular act of ‘martyrdom’ is told from radically different points of view, e.g. by a Muslim, a Catholic and a Protestant. Cruelty was widely practised throughout the Mediterranean world during this time, without any religion having a monopoly over it.

in Frontier narratives
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

Outlines of the Mediterranean ‘The Mediterranean speaks with many voices; it is a sum of individual histories’, writes Fernand Braudel in his magnum opus on the Mediterranean world of the later sixteenth century (1: 13), a work that generously allows us to hear many voices. My strategy in this book consists in part of being attentive to writing and speaking in the early modern Mediterranean world, to how people characterised the modalities of relationships and communicability of that world across ethnic, religious, geographical, linguistic and racial

in Frontier narratives
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

Mediterranean worked, reaching into the highest and lowest levels of politics and society and the modus operandi of Mediterranean economy, culture, religion and ethos, directly affecting the lives of millions of people and indirectly a great many more. Without them the early modern Mediterranean world would be illegible, unthinkable. Needless to say, this book by no means aims to be comprehensive in its handling of these topics, though it does strive to treat them in novel ways conducive to insight. Also present from beginning to end is an attention to how early modern

in Frontier narratives

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Community engagement and lifelong learning
Author: Peter Mayo

In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.