Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as
shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies.
That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to
death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen
comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the
mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints
pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the
secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its
disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give
birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.
‘Mercenary’ contracts as
Peter H. Wilson
Subsidies are widely acknowledged as an important manifestation
of European interstate relations between the fifteenth and early
nineteenth centuries, and they are beginning to attract serious
attention from scholars. To date, research has largely focused on
individual agreements or sets of agreements as part of wider diplomatic relations between two states. It is recognized that such
relations were invariably asymmetrical, with the stronger party
paying the weaker one in return
US narratives of private military and
security companies in Iraq
While many of us wanted to be a pirate in our childhood or had sympathies
with rebels such as Che Guevara in our teenage years, very few people wanted
to be a mercenary or private military and security company (PMSC) operative when they were young. And still nobody seems to like PMSCs. As Kateri
Carmola (2010: 9) points out, ‘whatever they are, we do not like them’. At least
since reports broke out of several fatal shootings in post-invasion Iraq – including the killing of seventeen civilians by
This book is a story about the importance of stories in International Relations. It brings insights from Literary Studies and Narratology into IR and political science by developing a new discourse analytical method of narrative analysis. Focusing on the three narrative elements of setting, characterization and emplotment, the book argues that narratives are of fundamental importance for human cognition and identity construction. Narratives help us understand the social and political world in which we live. The book emphasizes the idea of intertextual narratability which holds that for narratives to become dominant they have to link themselves to previously existing stories. Empirically the book looks at narratives about pirates, rebels and private military and security companies (PMSCs). The book illustrates in the case of pirates and rebels that the romantic images embedded in cultural narratives influence our understanding of modern piracy in places like Somalia or rebels in Libya. Dominant romantic narratives marginalize other, less flattering, stories about these actors, in which they are constituted as terrorists and made responsible for human rights violations. In contrast, in the case of PMSCs in Iraq the absence of such romantic cultural narratives makes it difficult for such actors to successfully narrate themselves as romantic heroes to the public.
rule of Psammetichus II (595–589), whom
Herodotus called Psammis (2.161), onto the Ethiopian tribes in the region
deep to the south, beyond Elephantine. Some sixty-five years later, when
Cambyses, king of Persia (530–522), invaded Egypt in 525 BC, he overwhelmed its Greek mercenaries (who by then may have numbered as many
as 30,000, on the reckoning of Herodotus), at the battle of Pelusium (Hdt.
2.163, 3.10–11; Murray 1980, 218–21).
Egypt was not the only Near Eastern state to find itself employing Greeks
as mercenaries. The poet Alcaeus from the island of Lesbos
recognition as are the regular forces.
Until the adoption of Protocol I no
attempt was made to discriminate among the members of an armed force on
the basis of their nationality or the motives which lead them to join
that force, whether those motives are ideological or mercenary. 70 In view, however,
of the number of mercenaries who enrolled in colonial armies
This relationship appears to have been based on money, and while in reality
Clearchus was little more than a mercenary commander bankrolled by a
Persian grandee, nevertheless the language of the arrangement was one of
friendship, reciprocity and obligation, marked by the exchange of favours.
Such relationships appear to have been common in the archaic and classical
periods. When, for instance, Demosthenes and Eurymedon raised 150
javelin-throwers in Iapygia (414 BC), it was due to the renewal of an old
friendship with Artas, the local ruler (Thuc. 7
a form he took from literary fictions. And, just as his swimming from
Sestos to Abydos was inspired by the Roman poet Ovid, so Byron
always had Walter Scott’s literary fiction of the Scottish mercenary
body close at hand to delineate a path forward.
If there was a ‘Jew’s Body’, adumbrated in literature, so too was
there a literary Scottish body, all the more attractive to Byron when he
was, as it were, a fish out of water: a Scotsman in the Mediterranean.21
J onathan G ross
A Jew’s body prevented him from obtaining Austrian citizenship
power and conflicts between the
individual and the collective, implying a connection between politics
and the unities. Examining both playwrights’ theatrical deployment
of images of the fifteenth-
century condottiero (mercenary leader)
Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola brings this connection into focus.
First, though, we need some sense of the historical context within
which these plays were written.
Political upheaval increased in Italy after the spring of 1817, when
a rebellion against the Austrians took place in Macerata in the region
of the Marches in the Papal
control seem to have
originated from Libyan mercenaries, who had either settled in Egypt during
the New Kingdom or had infiltrated into the country later. They inhabited the
various principalities in the Delta, but the numbers in the Kingdom of the West
may not have been sufficient to subjugate or indeed threaten the other territories
of the Delta.9
The Assyrian sources for this period, the prisms and cylinders of Ashurbanipal,
while providing an account of Ashurbanipal’s second invasion of Egypt also
point to where Psamtek was able to obtain additional military support