Mercenaries are fighters who operate under special conditions. Their presence, as shadow combatants, often tends to exacerbate the violence of their enemies. That’s why the analysis focuses on the singularity of the relationship to death and ‘procedures’ concerning the corpses of their fallen comrades. As a fighter identified and engaged in landlocked areas, the mercenary’s corpse is treated according to material constraints pertaining in the 1960s. After violence on their body, and evolution towards the secret war, mercenaries favour the repatriation of the body or its disappearance. These new, painful conditions for comrades and families give birth to a collective memory fostered by commemorations.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

3 ‘Mercenary’ contracts as Fiscal-Military Instruments Peter H. Wilson Introduction Subsidies are widely acknowledged as an important manifestation of European interstate relations between the fifteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and they are beginning to attract serious attention from scholars. To date, research has largely focused on individual agreements or sets of agreements as part of wider diplomatic relations between two states. It is recognized that such relations were invariably asymmetrical, with the stronger party paying the weaker one in return

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789

4 US narratives of private military and security companies in Iraq While many of us wanted to be a pirate in our childhood or had sympathies with rebels such as Che Guevara in our teenage years, very few people wanted to be a mercenary or private military and security company (PMSC) operative when they were young. And still nobody seems to like PMSCs. As Kateri Carmola (2010: 9) points out, ‘whatever they are, we do not like them’. At least since reports broke out of several fatal shootings in post-invasion Iraq – including the killing of seventeen civilians by

in Romantic narratives in international politics
Pirates, rebels and mercenaries

This book is a story about the importance of stories in International Relations. It brings insights from Literary Studies and Narratology into IR and political science by developing a new discourse analytical method of narrative analysis. Focusing on the three narrative elements of setting, characterization and emplotment, the book argues that narratives are of fundamental importance for human cognition and identity construction. Narratives help us understand the social and political world in which we live. The book emphasizes the idea of intertextual narratability which holds that for narratives to become dominant they have to link themselves to previously existing stories. Empirically the book looks at narratives about pirates, rebels and private military and security companies (PMSCs). The book illustrates in the case of pirates and rebels that the romantic images embedded in cultural narratives influence our understanding of modern piracy in places like Somalia or rebels in Libya. Dominant romantic narratives marginalize other, less flattering, stories about these actors, in which they are constituted as terrorists and made responsible for human rights violations. In contrast, in the case of PMSCs in Iraq the absence of such romantic cultural narratives makes it difficult for such actors to successfully narrate themselves as romantic heroes to the public.

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rule of Psammetichus II (595–589), whom Herodotus called Psammis (2.161), onto the Ethiopian tribes in the region deep to the south, beyond Elephantine. Some sixty-five years later, when Cambyses, king of Persia (530–522), invaded Egypt in 525 BC, he overwhelmed its Greek mercenaries (who by then may have numbered as many as 30,000, on the reckoning of Herodotus), at the battle of Pelusium (Hdt. 2.163, 3.10–11; Murray 1980, 218–21). Egypt was not the only Near Eastern state to find itself employing Greeks as mercenaries. The poet Alcaeus from the island of Lesbos

in The ancient Greeks at war
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potential recognition as are the regular forces. Mercenaries Until the adoption of Protocol I no attempt was made to discriminate among the members of an armed force on the basis of their nationality or the motives which lead them to join that force, whether those motives are ideological or mercenary. 70 In view, however, of the number of mercenaries who enrolled in colonial armies

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
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1.3–4) This relationship appears to have been based on money, and while in reality Clearchus was little more than a mercenary commander bankrolled by a Persian grandee, nevertheless the language of the arrangement was one of friendship, reciprocity and obligation, marked by the exchange of favours. Such relationships appear to have been common in the archaic and classical periods. When, for instance, Demosthenes and Eurymedon raised 150 javelin-throwers in Iapygia (414 BC), it was due to the renewal of an old friendship with Artas, the local ruler (Thuc. 7

in The ancient Greeks at war
Byron’s Scottish identity in Italy

Italy was a form he took from literary fictions. And, just as his swimming from Sestos to Abydos was inspired by the Roman poet Ovid, so Byron always had Walter Scott’s literary fiction of the Scottish mercenary body close at hand to delineate a path forward. If there was a ‘Jew’s Body’, adumbrated in literature, so too was there a literary Scottish body, all the more attractive to Byron when he was, as it were, a fish out of water: a Scotsman in the Mediterranean.21 66 66 J onathan   G ross A  Jew’s body prevented him from obtaining Austrian citizenship

in Byron and Italy
Tragedy and the Risorgimento in Byron and Manzoni

power and conflicts between the individual and the collective, implying a connection between politics and the unities. Examining both playwrights’ theatrical deployment of images of the fifteenth-​ century condottiero (mercenary leader) Francesco Bussone da Carmagnola brings this connection into focus. First, though, we need some sense of the historical context within which these plays were written. Political upheaval increased in Italy after the spring of 1817, when a rebellion against the Austrians took place in Macerata in the region of the Marches in the Papal

in Byron and Italy
Reunification of Egypt

control seem to have originated from Libyan mercenaries, who had either settled in Egypt during the New Kingdom or had infiltrated into the country later. They inhabited the various principalities in the Delta, but the numbers in the Kingdom of the West may not have been sufficient to subjugate or indeed threaten the other territories of the Delta.9 The Assyrian sources for this period, the prisms and cylinders of Ashurbanipal, while providing an account of Ashurbanipal’s second invasion of Egypt also point to where Psamtek was able to obtain additional military support

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC