Many people are shocked upon discovering that tens of thousands of innocent persons in the United States were involuntarily sterilized, forced into institutions, and otherwise maltreated within the course of the eugenic movement (1900–30). Such social control efforts are easier to understand when we consider the variety of dehumanizing and fear-inducing rhetoric propagandists invoke to frame their potential victims. This book details the major rhetorical themes employed within the context of eugenic propaganda, drawing largely on original sources of the period. Early in the twentieth century the term “moron” was developed to describe the primary targets of eugenic control. This book demonstrates how the image of moronity in the United States was shaped by eugenicists. This book will be of interest not only to disability and eugenic scholars and historians, but to anyone who wants to explore the means by which pejorative metaphors are utilized to support social control efforts against vulnerable community groups.
This chapter describes the importance of metaphor analysis in light of the eugenic alarm period. It spells out the various ways that pejorative metaphor images support social control practices and policies, and briefly delineates the metaphor themes (organism, animal, war and natural catastrophe, religious and altruistic, and object metaphors) that will be described within the book.
This book is a critical study of John Burton's work, which outlines an alternative framework for the study of international conflict, and re-examines conflict resolution. It argues that culture has a constitutive role in international conflict and conflict resolution. The book provides an overview of the mediation literature in order to locate problem-solving workshop conflict resolution within the context of peaceful third-party involvement. It analyses human needs thinking and examines the similarities between it and Burton's thinking. The book also examines the logic of Burton's argument by means of metaphor analysis, by analysing the metaphors which can be found in his human needs theory. It studies further Burton's views of action and rationality, and moves into phenomenology and social constructionism. The book takes as its starting-point a totalist theory of international conflict resolution, namely Burton's sociobiologically-oriented conflict theory, and demonstrates the logic of argument and the denial of culture underlying his problem-solving theory. It explains the dimensions of the social world in order to lay a foundation for the study of conflict and conflict resolution from the social constructionist perspective. The book presents a phenomenological understanding of conflict and problem-solving conflict resolution. Finally, it argues that problem-solving workshop conflict resolution can be best understood as an attempt to find a shared reality between the parties in conflict.
The problématique of culture in international conflict analysis
involvement. Pilot international problem-solving conflict resolution
approaches are compared and their underlying theoretical assumptions
studied in the chapter too. Chapter 3 analyses
human needs thinking and examines the similarities between it and
Burton’s thinking. The aim of the chapter is also to examine the
logic of Burton’s argument by means of metaphoranalysis, by
analysing the metaphors which can
assumptions around seemingly fixed, ‘intrinsic characteristics of cyberspace’ and the impact that their presumed empirical status has on our ability to attain certain strategic outcomes – for example, deterrence in cyberspace ( Lupovici, 2016 , p. 322). The importance of the sorts of metaphoranalysis carried out here by the likes of Cohen and Lupovici is that it reveals how intuitive but often limited or simplified forms of reasoning can have powerful constitute effects and consequently frame how we approach, evaluate and attempt to ‘resolve’ issues. Whether it is the